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Stigma is a problem for individuals with eating disorders EDs , forming a barrier to disclosure and help-seeking. Interventions to reduce ED stigma may help remove these barriers; however, it is not known which strategies e. This review described effectiveness of intervention strategies, and identified gaps in the literature. Two raters screened papers, extracted data, and assessed quality.

Stigma reduction strategies and study characteristics were examined in critical narrative synthesis. Exploratory meta-analysis compared the effects of biological and sociocultural explanations of EDs on attitudinal stigma. Eighteen papers were eligible for narrative synthesis, with four also eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis.

Most studies examined Anorexia Nervosa AN stigma and had mostly female, undergraduate participants. Despite apparent effectiveness, research should verify that biological explanations do not cause unintentional harm. Future research should evaluate in vivo contact, directly compare education and contact strategies, and aim to generalize findings across community populations. Layered stigma among health-care and social service providers toward key affected populations in Jamaica and The Bahamas.

While considerable research has documented stigma toward key populations affected by HIV and AIDS - men who have sex with men MSM , sex workers SWs - it provided limited empirical evidence on the presence of layered stigma among health-care professionals providing services for these populations. Differences were assessed by gender, country, type of staff, type of agency, and exposure to relevant training.

Findings indicate higher reported stigma among nonclinical vs. How do obese individuals perceive and respond to the different types of obesity stigma that they encounter in their daily lives? A qualitative study. Obesity stigma exists within many institutions and cultural settings. Most studies suggest that stigmatising experiences have a negative impact on individuals' health and social behaviours and outcomes.

However, some studies indicate that obesity stigma can motivate individuals to lose weight. Limited research has examined weight-based stigma from the perspective of obese individuals, including their perceptions of, and responses to, the different types of weight-based stigma they face in their daily lives. This study advances knowledge about weight-based stigma by documenting how obese adults mostly female described the different types of obesity stigma that they faced, how they responded to this stigma , and how different types of stigma impact on health and social wellbeing.

Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted between April and March with a diverse sample of obese Australian adults. Guided by Link and Phelan's categorisation of different types of discrimination, participants' experiences could be grouped into three distinct types of stigma : 1 Direct e. Participants described that more subtle forms of stigma had the most impact on their health and social wellbeing. However, it was the interaction between direct, environmental and indirect stigma that created a barrier to participation in health-promoting activities.

Participants rarely challenged stigma and often blamed themselves for stigmatising experiences. They also avoided situations where they perceived they would be stigmatised and constantly thought about how they could find a solution to their obesity. Mechanism of bystander- blaming : defensive attribution, counterfactual thinking, and gender. Contemporary victimology recognizes that an understanding of the mechanism of blaming requires a comprehensive approach that includes the victim, the offender, and the bystander.

However, most of the existing research on blaming focuses on the victim and the offender, ignoring the issue of bystander- blaming. This study highlights the bystander and investigates bystander- blaming by exploring some theoretical explanations, including counterfactual thinking, defensive attribution, and gender differences.

The study included young male and female participants, who read vignettes describing the behavior of the victim and the bystander in a rape scenario and answered questions regarding bystander- blaming. The results show that both counterfactual thinking and defensive attribution play a role in bystander- blaming. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

How to win the blame game. At some companies, people are all too quick to point fingers, leaving employees more concerned about avoiding blame than about achieving results. Such organizations, ruled by "CYA," have given blame a bum rap.

David Baldwin, a former Major League pitcher, says blame can be a powerful and constructive force. It can be an effective teaching tool that helps people avoid repeating their mistakes. When used judiciously--and sparingly-- blame can also prod people to put forth their best efforts, while maintaining both their confidence and their focus on goals.

Indeed, blame can have a very positive effect when it's done for the right reasons. The key, then, is the way that blame is managed, which can influence how people make decisions and perform their jobs and ultimately affect the culture and character of an organization. In the course of his research on how Major League Baseball managers make decisions, Baldwin became fascinated by the subject of blame --what functions it serves and how it's best managed.

His observations led him to identify five rules of blame , which, he says, apply to any organization, whether it's the LA Dodgers, General Motors, or a small start-up. First, know when to blame --and when not to. Second, blame in private and praise in public. Third, realize that the absence of blame can be far worse than its presence.

Fourth, manage misguided blame. And fifth, be aware that confidence is the first casualty of blame. Managers who follow these rules will use blame in the most positive and effective ways possible, Baldwin says. Without these rules, blame becomes an ever-more difficult balancing act: Too much erodes people's confidence, while too little hinders them from reaching their full potential.

Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma.

Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self- blame are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma , which leads to anticipated community stigma , which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes social support, trust in physicians were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma , again in a serial fashion perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma , which leads to anticipated stigma , which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes.

These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes-information that can be used to shape interventions. Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L. These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes—information that can be used to shape interventions.

The Stigma Complex. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas , expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels.

Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Many characteristics of the mark e. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts.

Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds. Perceptions of Suicide Stigma. Previous research has failed to examine perceptions of stigma experienced by individuals with a history of suicidal behavior, and few studies have examined how stigma is experienced based on whether it was perceived from treatment providers or social network members.

This study examined stigma experienced by individuals with previous suicidal behavior from both treatment providers and individuals in one's social and family networks. Respondents reported the highest rates of perceived stigma with a close family member Results indicated that individuals with previous suicidal behavior were more likely to experience stigma from non-mental health providers and social network members than from mental health providers. Prevalence of stigma perceived from social network members was the best predictor of depression symptom severity.

These findings highlight the need for future research on how social network members react to suicide disclosure and potential interventions for improving interactions following disclosure. Stigmatizing attitudes toward people with a drug addiction have detrimental effects on the lives of these people.

However, the factors that influence stigma toward people with a drug addiction have not yet been thoroughly investigated, compared with the stigma of other mental illnesses. Based on attribution theory, our experiment examined to what extent individual and contextual characteristics of people with a drug addiction influence stigmatizing attitudes toward people with a drug addiction. Moreover, we explored whether respondent characteristics indicative of familiarity with addiction decrease stigma toward people with a drug addiction.

We conducted a full factorial survey of 2, respondents from a German online access panel who were from all walks of life. We experimentally varied vignettes 2 9 -design that featured a fictional person with an addiction. Stigmatizing beliefs, such as blame or fear, were assessed using the Attribution Questionnaire AQ Different attributes of people with a drug addiction and of the characteristics of their addiction modulated stigma in ways that are mostly consistent with attribution theory and related research.

For example, female gender and younger age of people with a drug addiction diminished several stigmatizing attitudes; greater duration of addiction and social influence to use drugs increased them. Furthermore, characteristics of respondents modulated stigma : women, younger respondents, and those with higher education expressed less-stigmatizing responses than others. The stigmatization of people with a drug addiction is influenced by several factors, including characteristics of the stigmatized person, the addiction, and the person holding stigmatizing attitudes.

A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these effects is needed to develop evidence-based antistigma measures. Obesity stigma : important considerations for public health. Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma , its public health implications are widely ignored.

Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts.

These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. Drug addiction stigma in relation to methadone maintenance treatment by different service delivery models in Vietnam. The rapid expansion of methadone maintenance treatment MMT services has significantly improved health status and quality of life of patients. However, little is known about its impacts on addiction-related stigma and associated factors.

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi, and Nam Dinh province among methadone maintenance patients; Drug addiction history and related stigma , health status, MMT-related covariates, and sociodemographic characteristics were interviewed. More than one-sixth of the sample reported experiencing felt or enacted stigma , including Blame or Judgement Very few patients reported being discriminated at the workplace 2.

Drug users taking MMT for longer periods were less likely to report felt stigma. The study shows a high level of stigma against MMT patients and emphasizes the necessity to integrate MMT with comprehensive health and support services. Our aim was to explore perceptions and experiences of diabetes-related stigma from the perspective of adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus T1DM. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis.

Setting All interviews were conducted in non-clinical settings in metropolitan areas of Victoria, Australia. Results Australian adults with T1DM perceive and experience T1DM-specific stigma as well as stigma -by-association with type 2 diabetes. Such stigma is characterised by blame , negative social judgement, stereotyping, exclusion, rejection and discrimination.

Participants identified the media, family and friends, healthcare professionals and school teachers as sources of stigma. The negative consequences of this stigma span numerous life domains, including impact on relationships and social identity, emotional well-being and behavioural management of T1DM.

This stigma also led to reluctance to disclose the condition in various environments. Adults with T1DM can be both the target and the source of diabetes-related stigma. Conclusions Stigmatisation is part of the social experience of living with T1DM for Australian adults. Strategies and interventions to address and mitigate this diabetes-related stigma need to be developed and evaluated.

All interviews were conducted in non-clinical settings in metropolitan areas of Victoria, Australia. Australian adults with T1DM perceive and experience T1DM-specific stigma as well as stigma -by-association with type 2 diabetes.

Stigmatisation is part of the social experience of living with T1DM for Australian adults. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming. One of four possible vignettes manipulated by a level of rape myth contained within them low vs. Victim blaming…. Women fear impending social stigma including blame , isolation and abuse. Evidence suggests that interventions for people living with HIV infection that include , in combination, antiretroviral therapy ART , peer support and economic empowerment are likely to be more effective than if used alone.

We report a qualitative study in West Nile Uganda that explored perceptions of HIV stigma among fifty-four HIV-positive women who had similar access to ART and HIV peer support programmes, but varying levels of participation full-time, intermittent, none in economic empowerment programmes. Our study found that access to ART, peer support groups, and economic empowerment programmes helped to curb perceptions of deep-seated HIV stigma for participants.

More expressions of usefulness, hope and psychological well-being prevailed with participants who had increased participation in economic empowerment programmes. Further research to quantify the interaction of these factors is warranted. Prevalence and drivers of HIV stigma among health providers in urban India: implications for interventions. This study was designed to examine rates and drivers of stigma and discrimination among doctors, nurses and ward staff in different urban healthcare settings in high HIV prevalence states in India.

Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled doctors, nurses and ward staff in both governmental and non-governmental healthcare settings in Mumbai and Bengaluru, India. The approximately one-hour long interviews focused on knowledge related to HIV transmission, personal and professional experiences with PLHIV, instrumental and symbolic stigma , endorsement of coercive policies, and intent to discriminate in professional and personal situations that involve high and low risk of fluid exposure.

Results High levels of stigma were reported by all groups. Significant and modifiable drivers of stigma and discrimination included having less frequent contact with PLHIV, and a greater number of transmission misconceptions, blame , instrumental and symbolic stigma.

Participants in all three groups reported high rates of endorsement of coercive measures and intent to discriminate against PLHIV. Stigma and discrimination were associated with multiple modifiable. This cross-sectional study enrolled doctors, nurses and ward staff in both governmental and non-governmental healthcare settings in Mumbai and Bengaluru, India.

High levels of stigma were reported by all groups. Stigma and discrimination were associated with multiple modifiable drivers, which are consistent with. Medical regulation, spectacular transparency and the blame business. The purpose of this paper is to explore general practitioners' GPs' and psychiatrists' views and experiences of transparent forms of medical regulation in practice, as well as those of medical regulators and those representing patients and professionals.

The research included interviews with GPs, psychiatrists and others involved in medical regulation, representing patients and professionals. A qualitative narrative analysis of the interviews was then conducted. Three key themes emerge. First, doctors feel "guilty until proven innocent" within increasingly legalised regulatory systems and are consequently practising more defensively.

Second, regulation is described as providing "spectacular transparency", driven by political responses to high profile scandals rather than its effects in practice, which can be seen as a social defence. Finally, it is suggested that a " blame business" is driving this form of transparency, in which self-interested regulators, the media, lawyers, and even some patient organisations are fuelling transparency in a wider culture of blame.

A relatively small number of people were interviewed, so further research testing the findings would be useful. Transparency has some perverse effects on doctors' practice. Rising levels of blame has perverse consequences for patient care, as doctors are practicing more defensively as a result, as well as significant financial implications for NHS funding. Transparent forms of regulation are assumed to be beneficial and yet little research has examined its effects in practice.

In this paper we highlight a number of perverse effects of transparency in practice. Information Dilemmas and Blame -Avoidance Strategies. To explore why, this article links crisis information dilemmas to blame avoidance concepts from democratic political theories. We argue that greater Chinese transparency about infectious disease response reflects evolution in blame avoidance, from heavy reliance In , China put Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France.

Involving mental health service users in these anti- stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti- stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December to June Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants.

A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers.

A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Findings from Project Accept.

This paper uses data from Project Accept , which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale. The tool measured three components of HIV-related stigma : shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity.

Participants' ownership of basic assets was used to assess the socio-economic status. Disentangling self- stigma : are mental illness and help-seeking self- stigmas different? Two established but disparate lines of research exist: studies examining the self- stigma associated with mental illness and studies examining the self- stigma associated with seeking psychological help.

Whereas some researchers have implicitly treated these 2 constructs as synonymous, others have made the argument that they are theoretically and empirically distinct. To help clarify this debate, we examined in the present investigation the overlap and uniqueness of the self- stigmas associated with mental illness and with seeking psychological help.

Confirmatory factor analyses provide strong evidence for the factorial independence of the 2 types of self- stigma. Additionally, results of regression analyses in both samples suggest that the 2 self- stigmas uniquely predict variations in stigma -related constructs i.

Implications for researchers and clinicians interested in understanding stigma and enhancing mental health service utilization are discussed. Stigma and mood disorders. To update the reader on current research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from mood disorders and to describe recent interventions in this area.

The public generally feels their own attitudes are more favourable to people with depression than 'most other people's' attitudes are. Among those with depressive symptoms, self- stigma in relation to depression is higher than perceived stigma from others, including professionals, thus hindering help seeking. The main factor that seems to improve the attitudes towards people with any mental illness is personal contact.

Moderate improvements in attitudes have been achieved with an online intervention. Caution must be taken when ensuring that improvements in knowledge about mental disorders do not lead to increased social distance. There exists little research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mood disorders. Most of the literature on the stigma towards people with mental illness relates to people with more severe disorders such as schizophrenia.

When research has been done on mood disorders, the focus has been on perceived stigma and self- stigma. No up-to-date research exists on discrimination experienced by people with mood disorders, and very little research exists on interventions designed to decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards them.

There is little understanding of the causes, forms and consequences of this stigma in Islamic countries. This qualitative study explored perceptions and experiences of PLHIV regarding both the quality of healthcare and the attitudes and behaviours of their healthcare providers in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Data were analyzed using the content analysis approach. Nearly all participants reported experiencing stigma and discrimination by their healthcare providers in a variety of contexts. Participants perceived that their healthcare providers' fear of being infected with HIV, coupled with religious and negative value-based assumptions about PLHIV, led to high levels of stigma.

Participants mentioned at least four major forms of stigma : 1 refusal of care; 2 sub-optimal care; 3 excessive precautions and physical distancing; and 4 humiliation and blaming. The participants' healthcare-seeking behavioural reactions to perceived stigma and discrimination included avoiding or delaying seeking care, not disclosing HIV status when seeking healthcare, and using spiritual healing.

In addition, emotional responses to perceived acts of stigma included feeling undeserving of care, diminished motivation to stay healthy, feeling angry and vengeful, and experiencing emotional stress. While previous studies demonstrate that most Iranian healthcare providers report fairly positive attitudes towards PLHIV, our participants' experiences tell a different story.

Therefore, it is imperative to engage both healthcare providers and PLHIV in designing interventions targeting stigma in healthcare settings. Additionally, specialized training programmes in universal precautions for health providers will lead to stigma reduction. National policies to strengthen medical training and. From the Consulting Room to the Court Room? Within contemporary penal philosophy, the view that punishment can only be justified if the offender is a moral agent who is responsible and hence blameworthy for their offence is one of the few areas on which a consensus prevails.

In recent literature, this precept is associated with the retributive tradition, in the modern form of 'just deserts'. Turning its back on the rehabilitative ideal, this tradition forges a strong association between the justification of punishment, the attribution of responsible agency in relation to the offence, and the appropriateness of blame. By contrast, effective clinical treatment of disorders of agency employs a conceptual framework in which ideas of responsibility and blameworthiness are clearly separated from what we call 'affective blame ': the range of hostile, negative attitudes and emotions that are typical human responses to criminal or immoral conduct.

We argue that taking this clinical model of 'responsibility without blame ' into the legal realm offers new possibilities. Theoretically, it allows for the reconciliation of the idea of 'just deserts' with a rehabilitative ideal in penal philosophy.

Punishment can be reconceived as consequences-typically negative but occasionally not, so long as they are serious and appropriate to the crime and the context-imposed in response to, by reason of, and in proportion to responsibility and blameworthiness, but without the hard treatment and stigma typical of affective blame. Practically, it suggests how sentencing and punishment can better avoid affective blame and instead further rehabilitative and related ends, while yet serving the demands of justice.

Defining the research agenda to measure and reduce tuberculosis stigmas. Crucial to finding and treating the 4 million tuberculosis TB patients currently missed by national TB programmes, TB stigma is receiving well-deserved and long-delayed attention at the global level. However, the ability to measure and evaluate the success of TB stigma -reduction efforts is limited by the need for additional tools. At a TB stigma -measurement meeting held in The Hague, The Netherlands, stigma experts discussed and proposed a research agenda around four themes: 1 drivers: what are the main drivers and domains of TB stigma s?

Each theme was further subdivided into research topics to be addressed to move the agenda forward. These include greater clarity on what causes TB stigmas to emerge and thrive, the difficulty of measuring the complexity of stigma , and the improbability of a universal stigma 'cure'.

Nevertheless, these challenges should not hinder investments in the measurement and reduction of TB stigma. We believe it is time to focus on how, and not whether, the global community should measure and reduce TB stigma. Despite a plethora of opinions on how to improve US education, a remarkable consensus has emerged that someone or something is to blame for the failures of the public school system, argues rhetoric scholar Mark Hlavacik in this new and insightful book examining the role of language and persuasion in the rise of the accountability movement.

Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. A smart-phone intervention to address mental health stigma in the construction industry: A two-arm randomised controlled trial. Background High levels of self- stigma are associated with a range of adverse mental health, treatment, and functional outcomes.

This prospective study examined the effects of an electronic mental health stigma reduction intervention on self- stigma self- blame , shame, and help-seeking inhibition among male construction workers in Australia. Background: High levels of self- stigma are associated with a range of adverse mental health, treatment, and functional outcomes. Courtesy Stigma Revisited. Various family responses to the courtesy stigma concept a stigma acquired as a result of being related to a person with a stigma are examined with regard to mental retardation in particular and disability in general.

Also examined is how the social attribution of stigma serves to create distinctions, moral and otherwise, in society. Conceptualising abortion stigma. Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local.

Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies. Mental illness stigma : concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma. Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self- stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness.

Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti- stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti- stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma. Men's and women's experiences with HIV and stigma in Swaziland.

Through the process of conceptual analysis, themes, including felt stigma , information management, enacted stigma , and social support, were explored, coded, and analyzed in the contexts of partner and familial relationships, and workplace and neighborhood settings. Findings revealed that there were high levels of felt stigma in all contexts, yet fewer than anticipated accounts of enacted stigma in family, work, and neighborhood contexts compared to their expressions of felt stigma. The amount and characteristics of felt and enacted stigma and social support differed based on gender, as women often experienced more felt and enacted stigma than men, and had less definite financial or emotional support.

Abortion Stigma : A Systematic Review. Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February was considered.

The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from or later; the earliest was from Studies were based mainly on U. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy.

Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals.

Full Text Available Background: High levels of self- stigma are associated with a range of adverse mental health, treatment, and functional outcomes. Self- stigma was assessed using the Self- Stigma of Depression Scale at post-intervention. We conducted linear regression to assess the effectiveness of the intervention on self- stigma , adjusting for relevant covariates. Results: Self- stigma was relatively low in the sample.

The intervention had no significant effect on self- stigma , after adjusting for confounders. There were reductions in stigma in both the intervention and control groups at 6-week follow-up. Process evaluation indicated that participants generally enjoyed the program and felt that it was beneficial to their mental health. Conclusions: These observations underscore the need for further research to elucidate understanding of the experience of self- stigma among employed males.

Keywords: Self- blame , shame, help-seeking inhibition, stigma , construction, mental health. Self- stigma may feature strongly and be detrimental for people with depression, but the understanding of its nature and prevalence is limited by the lack of psychometrically-validated measures. This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of self- stigma about depression.

Items assessing self- stigma were developed from focus group discussions, and were tested and refined over three studies using surveys of university students, members of a depression Internet network, and members of the general Australian public. Evaluation involved item-level and bivariate analyses, and factor analytic procedures. Items performed consistently across the three surveys. Construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. The SSDS distinguishes self- stigma from perceptions of stigma by others, yields in-depth information about self- stigma of depression, and possesses good psychometric properties.

It is a promising tool for the measurement of self- stigma and is likely to be useful in further understanding self- stigma and evaluating stigma interventions. Biogenetic explanations and stigma : a meta-analytic review of associations among laypeople. The stigma and social rejection faced by people with a mental disorder constitute a major barrier to their well-being and recovery. Medicalization has been welcomed as a strategy to reduce blame and stigma , although critics have cautioned that attributing mental disorders to biogenetic causes may have unintended side effects that could exacerbate prejudice and rejection.

The present study presents a quantitative synthesis of the literature on relationships between biogenetic explanations for mental disorders and three key elements of stigma , namely blame , perceptions of dangerousness, and social distance. A comprehensive search yielded 25 studies meeting the inclusion criteria.

The negative association with blame was significant for schizophrenia, belief in genetic causation, and in student samples. The positive association with dangerousness was significant for all disorders, belief in general biogenetic causation, and in community samples.

The positive association with social distance was significant for schizophrenia, beliefs in neurochemical and general biogenetic causation, and in community samples. Nevertheless, across all analyses, biogenetic explanations were only weakly related to stigma. We conclude that biogenetic explanations for mental disorders confer mixed blessings for stigma. Nepali concepts of psychological trauma: the role of idioms of distress, ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology in alleviating suffering and preventing stigma.

In the aftermath of a decade-long Maoist civil war in Nepal and the recent relocation of thousands of Bhutanese refugees from Nepal to Western countries, there has been rapid growth of mental health and psychosocial support programs, including posttraumatic stress disorder treatment, for Nepalis and ethnic Nepali Bhutanese. This medical anthropology study describes the process of identifying Nepali idioms of distress and local ethnopsychology and ethnophysiology models that promote effective communication about psychological trauma in a manner that minimizes stigma for service users.

Psychological trauma is shown to be a multifaceted concept that has no single linguistic corollary in the Nepali study population. Respondents articulated different categories of psychological trauma idioms in relation to impact on the heart-mind, brain-mind, body, spirit, and social status, with differences in perceived types of traumatic events, symptom sets, emotion clusters and vulnerability.

Trauma survivors felt blamed for experiencing negative events, which were seen as karma transmitting past life sins or family member sins into personal loss. Some families were reluctant to seek care for psychological trauma because of the stigma of revealing this bad karma. In addition, idioms related to brain-mind dysfunction contributed to stigma , while heart-mind distress was a socially acceptable reason for seeking treatment. Different categories of trauma idioms support the need for multidisciplinary treatment with multiple points of service entry.

This article, written by two lawyers, defines defamation, discusses the basic law of defamation and stigma , and focuses on recent case law on this topic. The cases are only a sample of the numerous cases that school districts across the nation face on the issues of defamation and stigma. The following topics are included in the legal review: the…. Is Stigma Internalized? Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self- stigma.

Theoretically, it has been argued that public stigma leads to the development of self- stigma. However, the empirical support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional data. Therefore, the goal of this…. The 'side effects' of medicalization: a meta-analytic review of how biogenetic explanations affect stigma. Reducing stigma is crucial for facilitating recovery from psychological problems.

Viewing these problems biomedically may reduce the tendency to blame affected persons, but critics have cautioned that it could also increase other facets of stigma. We report on the first meta-analytic review of the effects of biogenetic explanations on stigma.

A comprehensive search yielded 28 eligible experimental studies. Finally, we found that biogenetic explanations do not typically affect social distance. Promoting biogenetic explanations to alleviate blame may induce pessimism and set the stage for self-fulfilling prophecies that could hamper recovery from psychological problems. Adaptation into Spanish of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness scale to assess personal stigma.

Patients with schizophrenia sometimes internalise social stigma associated to mental illness, and they develop personal stigma. Personal stigma includes self- stigma internalisation of negative stereotypes , perceived stigma perception of rejection , and experienced stigma experiences of discrimination. Personal stigma is linked with a poorer treatment adherence, and worst social functioning.

For this reason, it is important to have good measurements of personal stigma. There is a Spanish version of the scale available, although its psychometric properties have not been studied. The main aim of this study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a new Spanish version of the ISMI scale. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated in a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

The rate of patients showing personal stigma was also studied, as well as the relationship between personal stigma and sociodemographic and clinical variables. The adapted version obtained good values of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, for the total score of the scale 0. EIEM is an appropriate measurement tool to assess personal stigma in a Spanish population with severe mental disorder, at least in those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

The Reciprocal Relationship between Suicidality and Stigma. Although suicidality is frequently the cause of stigma , it is conversely true that stigma may be the cause of suicidality. The present paper focuses on the complex relationships that exist between suicidal behavior and stigmatizing attitudes.

A narrative review of the topic will be presented on the basis of the relevant literature collected from an electronic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, using stigma , public stigma , structural stigma , perceived stigma , self- stigma , suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidality as key words.

A negative perception is frequently held of suicidal people, labeling them as weak and unable to cope with their problems, or selfish. Individuals who have attempted suicide are subject to similar processes of stigmatization and "social distancing"; insurance policies include an exclusion clause against death by suicide.

Subjects with a direct personal experience of depression or suicide strongly endorse a feeling of self- stigma ; those who have attempted suicide are often ashamed and embarrassed by their behavior and tend to hide the occurrence as much as possible. Similar processes are observed among family members of subjects who have committed suicide or made a suicide attempt, with a higher perceived stigma present in those bereaved by suicide.

Perceived or internalized stigma produced by mental or physical disorders, or through belonging to a minority group, may represent a significant risk factor for suicide, being severely distressing, reducing self-esteem and acting as a barrier in help-seeking behaviors.

With the aim of preventing suicide, greater efforts should be made to combat the persisting stigmatizing attitudes displayed toward mental disorders and suicide itself. Indeed, the role of stigma as a risk factor for suicide should further motivate and spur more concerted efforts to combat public stigma and support those suffering from perceived or internalized stigma.

Experts and scientific societies. The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services.

Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study. Reconciliation responses, blame , and expressions of guilt or shame.

Recipients of intergroup apologies have been found to prefer expressions of shame over guilt. However, there is little research comparing the responses of a wronged group with those of a blamed group. This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma , and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma -related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma 's manifestations in society's institutions "heterosexism" and among individuals.

The latter include "enacted sexual stigma " overt…. The stigma of clean dieting and orthorexia nervosa. Although the stigma of eating disorders such as anorexia has been well established, little is known about the social consequences of "clean dieting" and orthorexia nervosa.

In two studies, we examined the social stigma of clean dieting and orthorexia. In Study 1, participants read a vignette describing a woman following a "clean" diet, a woman with anorexia, or a control target minimal information about the individual.

In Study 2, participants read a vignette describing a woman with orthorexia, a woman displaying identical orthorexic behaviors but without the orthorexia label, a woman with anorexia, or a control target. Participants then rated the target individual on a range of measures assessing stereotypes, emotions, and behavioral intentions toward the target. Study 1 found that the clean-dieting target was evaluated more negatively than the control target on some dimensions, but less negatively than the target with anorexia nervosa.

Study 2 found that evaluations of the targets with orthorexia nervosa were more negative than evaluations of a control target, but did not differ from evaluations of the target with anorexia nervosa. Perceptions of the target's control over her behavior were associated with more positive evaluations Studies 1 and 2 , whereas perceptions of blame and responsibility for the condition were associated with more negative evaluations Study 2.

Overall, these findings highlight the potential negative social consequences of clean dieting and orthorexia nervosa, and point to perceptions of control and blame as potential mechanisms underlying the stigma of these conditions. HIV infection has been a manageable and chronic illness in Taiwan since the highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in HIV infection is a stigmatized disease due to its perceived association with risky behaviors.

Internalized HIV stigma impacts the spiritual health of people living with HIV in terms of increased levels of shame, self- blame , fear of disclosing HIV status, and isolation and decreased value and connections with God, others, the environment, and the self. Nursing professionals provide holistic care for all people living with HIV and value their lives in order to achieve the harmony of body, mind, and spirit.

This article describes the stigma that is currently associated with HIV and how stigma -related discrimination affects the spiritual health of PLWH and then proposes how to reduce discrimination and stigma in order to improve the spiritual health of PLWH through appropriate spiritual care.

A sympathetic nervous system evaluation of obesity stigma. The portrayal of obesity in the media is often one of negativity. Consequently, it may generate an increase in stigma. Obesity stigma , a form of social discrimination, is responsible for many of the negative psychological and physiological effects on individual wellness. These effects not only impact individual health, but also affect the economy, and ultimately, societal wellness.

In an attempt to examine the influence of the media on obesity stigma , this study tested the hypothesis that positive priming would lead to a reduction in obesity stigma. To further our understanding of this relationship, we: 1 examined the role of priming on physiological measures e.

Results of this study revealed that priming affects physiological responding to obesity stigmatization. In conclusion, these findings suggest that incorporating positive media images of individuals with obesity may be an effective tool for reducing stigma and the various physiological consequences associated with it, which in turn, can enhance societal health and wellness. After the priming manipulation, participants read a vignette depicting the discrimination of an individual with obesity and answered subsequent questions assessing participants' attributional blame of obesity.

Full Text Available The portrayal of obesity in the media is often one of negativity. Is socio-economic status a determinant of HIV-related stigma attitudes in Zimbabwe? This paper uses data from Project Accept, which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. The tool measured three components of HIVrelated stigma : shame, blame and social isolation, perceived discrimination, and equity.

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