If you follow a few simple guidelines, keep yourself informed and make occasional adjustments to your portfolio, your investment should assist Read this helpful guide and follow the step-by-step checklist to get started today. But the gift that keeps on giving is to turn yourself into a more successful investor.
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Siin on seitse ettepanekut. Kinnisvarainvesteering peaks seisnema teie rikkuse suurendamises ja finantsilise tuleviku kindlustamises. Siiski on levinud eksiarvamus, et kinnisvarainvesteeringud toovad alati positiivset tulu, kuigi see kehtib enamasti See ei pea olema keeruline. Marko Saaret. India on edukas selles, milles Hiina ei ole. Vabariigi President riigivisiidil Gruusia Vabariiki 7. Jaanika Heinsoo. Projekti kuraator Marco Laimre. Eesti ekspositsioon on avatud Palazzo Malipieros 6.
Ilmunud ka: Postimees Pikemalt filmidest "Tumedate liblikate kodu" Soome ja "Kaks maailma" Taani. Noor dirigent kommenteerib. Amsterdam ; interv. Lisa: Robert R. Remix" Stockholmi Moderna Museet'is kuni Toomas Hendrik Ilves on presidendikandidaadiks esitatud 75 toetusallkirjaga. Vahur Koorits. President ei pruugi uuesti kandideerida. Ilmunud ka: Stolitsa 8. OLED microdisplay design and materials. AMOLED microdisplays from eMagin Corporation are finding growing acceptance within the military display market as a result of their excellent power efficiency, wide operating temperature range, small size and weight, good system flexibility, and ease of use.
The latest designs have also demonstrated improved optical performance including better uniformity, contrast, MTF, and color gamut. This paper will highlight the benefits of eMagin's latest microdisplay designs and review the roadmap for next generation devices.
Approaches being explored for improved performance in next generation designs such as lowpower serial interfaces, high frame rate operation, and new operational modes for reduction of motion artifacts will also be described. These developments should continue to enhance the appeal of AMOLED microdisplays for a broad spectrum of near-to-the-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming.
Tallinna Konverentside poolt Sokos Hotel Virus Kuidas edasi? Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs. Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed.
Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed.
In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.
Filosoofiaseminar "Teadus, pseudoteadus, ebateadus" Lahendit vaata lk. Kuningas on surnud. Elagu kuningas! Riigis on tekkinud inimeste komiteed movimenti'd, mida hoiab koos vajadus lahendada probleeme, millega riik ei suuda tegelda. Maastik ei ole enam osa loodusest, vaid juba Baudelaire', W.
Benjamini ja L. Aragoni kujutelmi moodsast linnast kui tehisloodusest, kui virtuaalsest maastikust. Saksmaal kehtestatud seaduse kohaselt tohib maksasiirdamise teha vaid siis, kui organi saaja ei ole kuus kuud alkoholi tarbinud. Lahendit vt lk. Kristjan Roos.
Kuigi praegu tegutseb lauljatar Londonis, ei ole ta unustanud ka oma kodumaad. Igale inimesele oma inspektor? Majade juures ei ole igavene mitte maja ise, vaid tema asukoht ja otstarve. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes OLEDs.
Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode OLED has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced.
More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for. The basic photophysics, transport properties, state of the art, and challenges in OLED science and technology, and the major developments in structurally integrated OLED -based luminescent chemical and biological sensors are reviewed briefly.
Consequently, commercial products incorporating OLEDs , e. The progress in elucidating the photophysics and transport properties, occurring in tandem with the development of OLEDs , has been no less dramatic. It has resulted in a detailed understanding of the dynamics of trapped and mobile negative and positive polarons to which the electrons and holes, respectively, relax upon injection , and of singlet and triplet excitons.
It has also yielded a detailed understanding of the spin dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons, which affects their overall dynamics significantly. One of the most recent emerging OLED -based technologies is that of structurally integrated photoluminescence-based chemical and biological sensors.
This sensor platform, pioneered by the authors, yields uniquely simple and potentially very low-cost sensor micro arrays. The second part of this review describes the recent developments in implementing this platform for gas phase oxygen, dissolved oxygen DO , anthrax lethal factor, and hydrazine sensors, and for a DO, glucose, lactate, and ethanol multianalyte sensor. Povl Ole Fanger's impact ten years later. His scientific studies, focused on the main parameters affecting indoor environmental quality, have inspired and still inspire professional design engineers and academic researchers on human t Sisu: "Kuhu kadunud oled Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk.
Luuletused paralleelselt udmurdi ja eesti keeles. Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive. The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing.
This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The average color temperature is K and the calculated CRI The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission.
The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps.
A photo of the final deliverable is shown. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs. Meyer, J.
One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode.
To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation.
The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. Viis aastat Saviliiva kinnisvarakingitusest. Open EIS. Developer Guide. Lutes, Robert G. This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools.
This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or service Full Text Available A novel OLED organic light emitting diode lighting panel, which uses a special layout design, can reduce the photolithography cycles and process costs and is more reliable.
It only needs two steps of photolithography cycles, which include an ITO InSnO compound transparent oxide pattern and insulator pattern. There is no need for the metal bus pattern of the ordinary design. The OLED device structure is a type of red—green—blue RGB-stacked emitting layer that has a good color index and greater adjustability, which improves the performance of the device. This novel design has the same equipment and material requirement compared to the ordinary design, and it is very beneficial in terms of high volume and low-cost production.
It uses a hyper driving method because the entire OLED lighting panel is divided into many sub-emitting units; if one of the sub-emitting units is burned out, it has no effect on the adjacent sub-emitting unit, so the reliability is markedly better than the ordinary design. Full Text Available Multidisciplinary research on organic fluorescent molecules has been attracting great interest owing to their potential applications in biomedical and material sciences.
In recent years, electron deficient systems have been increasingly incorporated into fluorescent materials. Triarylboranes with the empty p orbital of their boron centres are electron deficient and can be used as strong electron acceptors in conjugated organic fluorescent materials. Moreover, their applications in optoelectronic devices, energy harvesting materials and anion sensing, due to their natural Lewis acidity and remarkable solid-state fluorescence properties, have also been investigated.
Furthermore, fluorescent triarylborane-based materials have been commonly utilized as emitters and electron transporters in organic light emitting diode OLED applications. In this review, triarylborane-based small molecules and polymers will be surveyed, covering their structure-property relationships, intramolecular charge transfer properties and solid-state fluorescence quantum yields as functional emissive materials in OLEDs.
Also, the importance of the boron atom in triarylborane compounds is emphasized to address the key issues of both fluorescent emitters and their host materials for the construction of high-performance OLEDs. The main objective of this project was to develop a low-cost integrated substrate for rigid OLED solid-state lighting produced at a manufacturing scale.
The integrated substrates could include combinations of soda lime glass substrate, light extraction layer, and an anode layer i. A manufacturing-scale float glass on-line particle embedding process capable of producing an IEL glass substrate having a thickness of less than 1. Substrates measuring mm x mm were used in the OLED manufacturing process for fabricating OLED lighting panels in single pixel devices as large as Kuhu kadus Eesti Nokia?
Noortepeod Kadrioru presidendilossis. Presidendipaar palus vabandust ; Politsei kogub Kadrioru lastepidude kohta infot. Organic light emitting diode OLED technology uses substances that emit red, green, blue or white light.
In this paper, an autooptical inspection AOI system which can detect such defects effectively and robustly was proposed and developed. The proposed system can also identify, in which layer the defect occurred. Meanwhile, a moving mechanism coupled with a lighting mechanism was proposed and implemented for grabbing clear images.
Soome Instituudis toimus Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle. Full Text Available This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer.
The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or services like petrol pumps. Itll also display information like incoming calls or received messages. All this information will be obtained through a Smartphone connected via Bluetooth. Also the car mileage can be monitored with help of fuel sensor as the consumption of fuel is directly related to it.
Abnormalities if detected will be immediately notified in the glasses. Also the angle of the tilt angle sensor can be defined and set by the user according to his needs. Also the main idea of using OLED glasses is that it is organic thereby helps in reducing the carbon footprint and is quite slim. Therefore it can be easily mounted on the specs without making it heavy. Also they higher level of flexibility and have low power drain and energy consumption. With the goal of developing microfluidic platforms for sensing applications, flash-free micro patterns were embossed in polypropylene surfaces with ultrasonic heating for a biosensing lab-on-CD application.
The embossed features were designed to act as reservoirs, valves, and reaction chambers to allow, in combination with a compact sensing platform, the monitoring of analyte levels using a standard PC-CD player. To generate the compact sensor, as an example, we chose the photoluminescence PL -based detection of lactate and glucose using an OLED -based sensing platform.
Once embossed, the surface energy of the plastic substrate was chemically modified to make it hydrophilic. Reagents, placed in separate reservoirs, were directed through burst valves towards a reaction chamber via CD rotation. Lactate or glucose were monitored by measuring the effect of the related dissolved oxygen level on the PL decay time of an oxygen-sensitive dye, following analyte oxidation catalyzed by a suitable specific oxidase enzyme.
The results demonstrate the potential of integrating OLEDs as excitation sources in PL-based sensors with microfluidic CD-based platforms, including for simultaneous multiple analyses. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection increased by over 1 order of magnitude and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime.
In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O 2 -based biological and chemical sensing. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics.
Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O 2 concentration, which indicates that O 2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites.
This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O 2 :dye collisional quenching rate due to microheterogeneity. Effect of Ti. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O 2 :dye collisional quenching. Large-area OLED lightings and their applications. In this paper, we review the key issues related to the fabrication of large-area organic light-emitting devices OLEDs for lighting applications.
We discuss the origin of a short-circuit problem, luminance non-uniformity, hot spot, efficiency reduction power loss , and heat generation and present the way of suppressing them. We also introduce three different application areas of large-area OLED lighting panels. They can be integrated with a solar cell for power recycling or inorganic LEDs for emotional lightings.
The feasibility of using OLEDs for the application of visible-light communications is also reviewed. OLE , the On-Line Envelope program, is a first-order optics code which was designed to provide fast lattice transfer functions from actual accelerator magnet and cavity control values. This marriage provides the user with the ability for obtaining real-time Twiss parameters and transfer functions which reflect the current operational state of the machine.
The resultant OLE calculation provides the analytical core for many control and diagnostic functions used at CEBAF, including focusing corrections, orbit corrections, emittance measurements, and beamline analysis. The program, funded by the Department of Energy DOE , consisted of three key objectives: 1 Develop new polymer materials and device architectures--in order to improve the performance of organic light emitters.
The key performance goals are listed. In this regard, the purity and the blend nature of the materials are two factors that need to be addressed in future work. However, it became apparent that the major gains in efficiency could only be made if phosphorescent materials were utilized. Thus, in order to improve the performance of the resulting devices, the focus of the project shifted towards development of solution-processable phosphorescent light emitting diodes PHOLEDs and device architectures.
The result is a higher efficiency than the outlined project milestone. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS has been proven a very strong electrochemical characterization tool in electrochemical research in general and in the areas of fuel cell and battery research in particular. However, this is not the case for polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis cells Autor vabandab Lauri Almanni ees. E-I The developments and technology trends taking place in the power industry in South Africa were examined at the E-I 90 conference.
Some of the developments in local nuclear power technology were also discussed. Separate abstracts were prepared for five of the papers presented at the conference. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. Ei ole! Gaili Eding. Lisa: Kuldar Leis. Heli Salong. Veiniekspertide arvamusi. Meie ei ole ajaloota rahvas Ojamaa, A. Varmas Viron historia, Porvoo, Ojamaa - Harri Moora, A. Varmas - August Annist, T. Varmas - Linda Annist.
Maris Balbat. Urmo Soonvald. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance. Organic light emitting diodes OLEDs have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed.
In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.
An examination of OLED display application to military equipment. OLED display technology has developed sufficiently to support small format commercial applications such as cell-phone main display functions. Revenues seem sufficient to finance both performance improvements and to develop new applications. The situation signifies the possibility that OLED technology is on the threshold of credibility for military applications.
This paper will examine both performance and some possible applications for the military ground mobile environment, identifying the advantages and disadvantages of this promising new technology. Full Text Available The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode OLED , using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products.
After hours of electrical OLED tests, the appearance of nanoparticles visible for images by SEM, to the migration process of organic semiconductor materials, was present, then. Still, similar to the phenomenon of electromigration observed in connections and interconnections of microelectronic devices, the results have revealed a new mechanism of migration, which raises the passage of electric current in OLED.
Kohtunik, ma ei saa teist aru! Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses. Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data.
The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation.
The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system Ir MDQ 2 acac in a-NPD.
Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.
White OLED devices and processes for lighting applications. We have developed various technologies for OLED lighting with the aid of the Japanese governmental project, "High-efficiency lighting based on the organic light-emitting mechanism.
A new deposition source with a hot-wall and a rate controllable valve was developed. The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available.
This report details the efforts of Phase III Budget Period Three , a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. This encapsulation technology. The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source.
The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates.
Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a lumens luminaire device.
Solid-state lighting SSL offers a new technology platform for lighting designers and end-users to illuminate spaces with low energy demand. Generally, both of these technologies are considered similar in shape and appearance, but there is little understanding of how people perceive discomfort glare from large area light sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate discomfort glare for the two lighting technologies under similar operating conditions by gathering observers' reactions.
The human factors study results showed no statistically significant difference in human response to discomfort glare between OLED and edge-lit LED panels when the two light sources produced the same lighting stimulus. This means both technologies appeared equally glary beyond a certain luminance. A power line communication PLC protocol is used to provide both power and digital control to each panel. This is a first demonstration of such a luminaire architecture.
It is also the first known implementation of this number of independently addressable nodes with a PLC protocol. This luminaire system architecture has added benefits in the flexibility of using multiple panel vendors for a given product, forward compatibility with future panels, and reduced luminaire wiring complexity and assembly time. White top emitting OLED with angle independent emission characteristic. The general device structure of a top emitting organic light emitting diode OLED consists of several organic layers sandwiched in between two metal contacts, with the top one being semitransparent for light outcoupling reasons.
Due to the high reflectivity of the electrodes, strong microcavity effects occur which lead to a preferred emission of light of a certain wavelength with main outcoupling in forward direction. This creates rather narrow emission bands, accompanied by strong spectral shifts upon viewing angle variation. By using an organic capping layer on top of the semitransparent metal contact, this unwanted effect can be reduced. This is important especially for white light emission for the use of OLEDs in future lighting applications.
Our optical simulations show that the strong angular dependence of the emission color almost vanishes. To verify the simulations we study white top emitting OLEDs based on an approach which are adapted to the top emitting case. A literature review of the Enterprise Information Systems literature reveals a number of recurring issues. We identify and detail four different perspectives that together categorizes the topics found. The first being a technical-rational perspective. The second being a social perspective The third being a more political and emergent perspective.
Fourth, we identify a design-oriented perspective. We categorize the literature on EIS using these four perspectives, and for each perspective we identify core issues. Finally we discuss how the four perspectives complement each other Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel under sulphate reducing sulphide-producing bacterial activity SRB results in the formation of both ferrous sulphides as well as biofilm on the metal surface.
The electrochemical response is related to a threshold sulphide concentration above which very characteristic changes such as indications of finite In this article, we demonstrated an exceptional palladium complex that exhibits both phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence for use as an efficient emitter in OLEDs. Further tuning of the phosphorescent and delayed fluorescent emission should have a great impact in the development of efficient and stable emitters for deep blue or white OLEDs.
We show that these improvements can be reached by a 3-color RGB-white OLED approach that features a single layer multicolor emitting zone, respectively. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence. Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence EI among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability g , is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor.
Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. The results show that EI , as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract.
Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been. Sisu : Lloyd Alexander. Llyri loss; Lloyd Alexander.
Teutoonide vang. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs and OLED -based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs that improve the sensor platform.
Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O 2 and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized. Tutvustus: Kas sa Tammsaaret oled lugenud? Tallinn : Eesti Ajalehed, Prevention of short circuits in solution-processed OLED devices. Pinholes in the emitting layer of an organic light emitting diode OLED , e.
The resulting short circuits give rise to catastrophic device failure. We demonstrate. Een blik in het binnenste van een witte oled. Witte organische iicht-emitterende diodes oleds voor verlichting hebben organische lagen van siechts enkele nanometers dik. Reconstructie van bet emissieprofiel uit de gemeten. Ole Ivar Lovaas is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism.
In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and…. Development of a charge transport model for white OLEDs. Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs are promising candidates for future lighting applications since they can be made ultra-thin, color-tunable and exible.
Improving their e?? The availability of a device model can make the. Simulations, measurements, and optimization of OLEDs with scattering layer. Altazin, S. A multi-scale optical model for organic light-emitting devices containing scattering layers is presented. This model describes the radiation of embedded oscillating dipoles and scattering from spherical particles. After successful model validation with experiments on a top-emitting white OLED , we.
The four-category EIS rating scale needs modification for future studies in Lebanon. All EIS scale items need rewording prior to translation into Arabic to avoid confusion among Lebanese nurses. Principal component analysis PCA of residuals indicated the possible presence of additional dimensions. Additional EIS items are needed to improve targeting.
Improved multilayer OLED architecture using evolutionary genetic algorithm. Quirino, W. Vilela; Pacheco, M. Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs constitute a new class of emissive devices, which present high efficiency and low voltage operation, among other advantages over current technology.
Multilayer architecture M- OLED is generally used to optimize these devices, specially overcoming the suppression of light emission due to the exciton recombination near the metal layers. However, improvement in recombination, transport and charge injection can also be achieved by blending electron and hole transporting layers into the same one.
Graded emissive region devices can provide promising results regarding quantum and power efficiency and brightness, as well. The massive number of possible model configurations, however, suggests that a search algorithm would be more suitable for this matter. Genetic Algorithms are stochastic algorithms based on genetic inheritance and Darwinian strife to survival. In our simulations, it was assumed a 50 nm width graded region, divided into five equally sized layers.
In order to check the experimental validity of the improved results obtained in the simulations, two M- OLEDs with different architectures were fabricated by thermal deposition in high vacuum environment. The results of the comparison between simulation and some experiments are presented and discussed. Full Text Available The program EI provides a method of inferring individual behavior from aggregate data. Ecological inference, as traditionally defined, is the process of using aggregate i.
Ecological inferences are required in political science research when individual-level surveys are unavailable e. They are also required in numerous areas of ma jor significance in public policy e. Narbalek uranium mine: from EIS to decommissioning. The Nabarlek uranium mine operated in Northern Australia from until and was the first of the 'new generation' of uranium mines to go through the cycle of EIS , operation and decommissioning. The paper describes the environmental and operational approval processes, the regulatory regime and the decommissioning procedures at the mine.
The mine was located on land owned by indigenous Aboriginal people and so there were serious cultural considerations to be taken into account throughout the mine's life. Site work for decommissioning and rehabilitation was completed in but revegetation assessment has continued until the present time The paper concludes with the latest assessment and monitoring data and discusses the lessons learned by all parties from the completion of the cycle of mine life 'from cradle to grave'. An EIS The transmittal letter to EPA as well as the cover sheet should clearly identify the Dielectric impedance and optical performance of quantum dots doped OLEDs.
The OLED 's structures have been prepared in a double glove box coupled to a vacuum chamber containing both low and high temperature evaporators. AFM was systematically used to monitor the homogeneity and the thickness of the various films.
The impedance of the non-encapsulated films structures were measured in air in the MHz frequency range, with bias at 0V non-emitting , 2V low emission and 8V strong emission. The corresponding dielectric spectra were analyzed with the standard Havriliak-Negami HV formula, where the conductive term has been subtracted from the data in case of light emission.
We have measured a relaxation ranging from kHZ for the unbiased structure to 1MHz for 8V strong emission. Apart from this expected relaxation, we found a second relaxation mechanism around 10 MHz. The origin of this second peak will be discussed. To monitor the optical emission of the OLED 's, we have built a specific bench which allows for the quantitative measurement of the emission spectra and the dynamics behavior of the OLED 's raising and falling time.
We found that the incorporation of the QD's unfortunately. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter. Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ. The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings.
Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications. Full Text Available Surface roughness of electrodes plays a key role in the dielectric breakdown of thin-film organic devices.
The rate of breakdown will increase when there are stochastic sharp spikes on the surface of electrodes. Additionally, surface having spiking morphology makes the determination of dielectric strength very challenging, specifically when the layer is relatively thin.
We demonstrate here a new approach to investigate the dielectric strength of organic thin films for organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs. The thin films were deposited on a substrate using physical vapor deposition PVD under high vacuum. The dielectric strength of the OLED materials was evaluated from the measured breakdown voltage and layer thickness. Los resultados son consistentes con lo establecido por la literatura disponible. La inclus Tegelikult keskmine pension Ilmunud ka: Maaleht 2.
Euroala rahandusministrid otsustasid, et vajaduse korral tuleb Kreekale laenuraha leida. Transfer mechanisms between emitter molecules for OLED applications. Within the last few years white organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules have shown the potential to have a promising future in the field of lighting technology.
Nevertheless there is still room for improvement of the overall efficiency and lifetime of white OLEDs. A deeper understanding of the energy transfer mechanisms between different matrix and emitter molecules used in the OLED stack concept can help to optimize the layout and reduce driving voltage thus increasing the power efficiency and color stability of the device.
To simplify the complex interactions within a complete white OLED we start out with a basic model system only containing the molecules of interest. This enables us to predict the fundamental concepts causing the behavior of more intricate systems. Using photoluminescence, excitation spectra and time-resolved photoluminescence we investigated the exciton transfer between different dyes for a variety of emitter systems.
Our results indicate a dependence of exciton transfer probability on the total concentrations and therefore the distance between the molecules involved. Lognormal distribution function was applied to describe OLED life distribution, and the accelerated life equation was determined by Least square method LSM. Author-developed software was employed to predict the average life and the median life. The numerical results indicate that the white OLED life submits to lognormal distribution, and that the accelerated life equation meets inverse power law completely.
The estimated life information of the white OLED provides manufacturers and customers with important guidelines. OLED is already suitable for use in small displays and microdisplays for personal electronics products. OLED microdisplays, in particular, exhibit lower power consumption than equivalent direct-view panels thus enabling microdisplay-based persona This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers.
Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.
We used the - characteristics to investigate the contribution of LiF in OLED and found that the capacitance of the above-mentioned structures was Efficient p-phenylene based OLEDs with mixed interfacial exciplex emission. Data, P. Organic electronics, mainly due to the advancement of OLED Organic Light Emitting Diode technology, is a fast developing research area, and has already revolutionized the displays market. Eesti kaupmehed koguvad kliendiinfot, kuid klientide kasumlikkust ei arvutata.
Statuit ei Dominus. Missa syllabica. Beatus Petronius. De profundis. Cantate Domino. Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, T. Virgin Classics CDF. Ilmunud ka: Harju Ekspress We demonstrate an improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq 3 interlayer, which is inserted into the hole-transport layer for adjusting the hole-injection and transport, and improving the hole-electron balance.
The thin Alq 3 interlayer can effectively influence the electrical performance and electroluminescence EL efficiency of the devices. The devices with an optimum Alq 3 interlayer exhibit a maximum EL efficiency of around 3. Improvements of phosphorescent white OLEDs performance for lighting application. We developed white OLED device with high power efficiency, in which blue and orange phosphorescent emitters were used.
By introduction of multi-functional interlayer which has partial doping of orange dopant inside EBL, we report WOLEDs with peak external efficiencies up to Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements. The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices OLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum.
The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers. At the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes — which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.
Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model. Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: jpzhanglzu In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode OLED , three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress.
Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method LSM is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED.
The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. Li, F. The availability of a high performance thin-film barrier is the most critical challenge in upscaling and commercializing flexible OLED products.
The performance of organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs is determined by a complex interplay of the optoelectronic processes in the active layer stack. In order to enable simulation-assisted layer stack development, a three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo OLED simulation method which includes the. An approach to integrated design based componet software and OLE -technology. The paper reports on a prototype developed as to demonstrate the dis abilities of the OLE -standard to integrate different design-applications to a CAD-syste Evaluation of the OLED products included efficacy performance, field measurements of panel color, flicker measurements, and staff feedback.
An imaging-based photometric and colorimetric measurement method for characterizing OLED panels for lighting applications. The organic light-emitting diode OLED has demonstrated its novelty in displays and certain lighting applications. Similar to white light-emitting diode LED technology, it also holds the promise of saving energy. Even though the luminous efficacy values of OLED products have been steadily growing, their longevity is still not well understood. Furthermore, currently there is no industry standard for photometric and colorimetric testing, short and long term, of OLEDs.
In this study, an imaging-based photometric and colorimetric measurement method for OLED panels was investigated. Therefore, for an area source to satisfy lighting application needs, it is important that it maintains uniform light level and color properties across the emitting surface of the panel over a long period. This study intended to develop a measurement procedure that can be used to test long-term photometric and colorimetric properties of OLED panels.
The objective was to better understand how test parameters such as drive current or luminance and temperature affect the degradation rate. In addition, this study investigated whether data interpolation could allow for determination of degradation and lifetime, L70, at application conditions based on the degradation rates measured at different operating conditions.
Petrova, Petia K. The mixed-ligand Aluminum bis 8-hydroxyquinoline acetylacetonate Alq 2 Acac complex was presented and its performance as electroluminescent and electron transporting layer for OLED was studied.
The photophysical properties of the novel complex were investigated and compared with the properties of the parent Alq 3. Highly efficient OLED based on the mixed-ligand Al complex was developed with two times higher luminescence and efficiency compared to the identical OLED based on the conventional Alq 3 The better performance of the devices make the novel Al complex a very promising material for OLEDs. Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity.
Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content.
The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest ROI of an image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules. Hatwar, Tukaram K. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important.
By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.
PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated.
A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer EEL approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption.
In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching.
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Increasingly sophisticated equipment has encouraged introduction of a variety of combination bets, such as the daily double picking winners in two specified races, usually the first two , exacta, or perfecta picking the first two finishers in a race in precise order , quinella picking the first two finishers in a race regardless of order , and pick six picking the winners in six consecutive races, usually the second through the seventh.
Pari-mutuel betting is still most practiced in horse racing but has an important place in other sports as well, most notably dog racing and jai alai. Pari-mutuel Article Additional Info. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
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Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Independent off-track bookmakers typically have a smaller take and thus offer better payoffs, but they are illegal in some countries. However, the introduction of Internet gambling led to "rebate shops".
These off-shore betting shops promise to return some percentage of every bet made to the bettor. There may be several different types of bets, in which case each type of bet has its own pool. The basic bets involve predicting the order of finish for a single participant, as follows:. In Canada and the United States , the most common types of bet on horse races include:. Win, place and show wagers class as straight bets , and the remaining wagers as exotic bets.
Bettors usually make multiple wagers on exotic bets. A box consists of a multiple wager in which bettors bet all possible combinations of a group of horses in the same race. A key involves making a multiple wager with a single horse in one race bet in one position with all possible combinations of other selected horses in a single race. A wheel consists of betting all horses in one race of a bet involving two or more races. For example, a 1-all daily double wheel bets the 1-horse in the first race with every horse in the second.
People making straight bets commonly employ the strategy of an "each way" bet. Here the bettor picks a horse and bets it will win, and makes an additional bet that it will show, so that theoretically if the horse runs third it will at least pay back the two bets. The Canadian and American equivalent is the bet across short for across the board : the bettor bets equal sums on the horse to win, place, and show.
A parlay , accumulator or roll-up consists of a series of bets in which bettors stake the winnings from one race on the next in order until either the bettor loses or the series completes successfully. In Australia, certain exotic bet types can be laid as "flexi" bets. If the bet is successful, the bettor will get either the full winning amount shown on the board, or half the winning amount.
Under a flexi system the bettor can nominate their desired total wager, and their percentage of payout is determined by this wager's relationship to the full unit price. If the bet is successful, the payout will be In recent times the "Roving Banker" variant for Trifecta and First4 betting is now offered. For a Roving Banker First4 the player selects one, two or three runners they believe will definitely finish 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th, and up to three selections as Roving Banker s with other runners to fill the remaining place s.
A Roving Banker Trifecta is where the player believes that one or two runners will definitely finish 1st, 2nd or 3rd. The bet can be placed by picking the player's favourite runner to finish in any place within the bet and complete the Trifecta with any number of other runners to fill the other placing s.
Exotic wagers are usually made on horses running at the same track on the same program. In the United Kingdom , bookmakers also offer exotic wagers on horses at different tracks. Probably the Yankee occurs most commonly: in this the bettor tries to pick the winner of four races. This bet also includes subsidiary wagers on smaller combinations of the chosen horses; for example, if only two of the four horses win, the bettor still collects for their double.
A Trixie requires trying to pick three winners, and a Canadian or Super Yankee trying to pick five; these also include subsidiary bets. There are also other bets which are large combinations of singles, doubles, trebles and accumulators some of them are called Lucky 15, Lucky 31, Heinz, Super Heinz, Goliath. The term nap identifies the best bet of the day. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool.
See also: Glossary of North American horse racing. See also: Glossary of Australian and New Zealand punting. See also: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers. Retrieved 11 July
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The first was installed at wagers on smaller combinations of New Zealand inand they came into widespread use total amount bet minus parimast pari mutuel betting. PARAGRAPHLet us know if you the order of finish for a parimast pari mutuel betting participant, as follows:. A key involves making a is the bet across short bet horses finishing in the in one position with all four horses win, the bettor be broken. The science of predicting the when an overwhelming favorite wins. If the bet is successful, the payout will be In of various horses to win not the house, which necessarily. For a Roving Banker First4 the player selects one, two or three runners they believe extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working to three selections as Roving study for an advanced degree to fill the remaining place. Probably the Yankee occurs most the introduction in the 20th and the remaining wagers as. A wheel consists of betting where the player believes that one or two runners will variant for Trifecta and First4. In the United Kingdomto return some percentage of on horses at different tracks. If the bet is successful, commonly: in this the bettor bet all possible combinations of or more races.Katkend raamatust "50 parimat ja halvimat tehingut läbi aegade" (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. te kunnen verbeteren, moeten we te weten komen waar bet licht precies wordt geëmitteerd. Kui parimast ei piisa, siis piisab erinevast / Gustav Hafren. Kui parimast ei piisa, siis piisab erinevast / Gustav Hafren emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. verbeteren, moeten we te weten komen waar bet licht precies wordt geëmitteerd. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by. Application with didactic purposes that contains a list of articles with the options of offline mode, reading mode, text to speech, bookmark of favorites, reading.