The British had offered to unite Cyprus with Greece as early as on condition that Greece fulfilled its treaty obligations towards Serbia when it was attacked by Bulgaria. The Greek government refused and the offer was never repeated again. Pro-enosis riots broke out in , but it wasn t until the s that the enosis movement really began to gather steam. Between and , EOKA launched a series of covert attacks on the British administration and military, and on anyone else who was seen as being against enosis.
The British came up with various proposals for limited home rule, but all were rejected. The respective governments in Greece and Turkey began to take an active interest in developments in Cyprus and, as Greek Cypriots called for enosis, the Turkish Cypriots demanded either retrocession to Turkey, or taksim partition. They came to ratify a previously agreed plan whereby independence would be granted to Cyprus under conditions that would satisfy all sides.
The British were to retain two bases and a numbr of other military sites as part of the agreement. Cyprus would not enter into a political or economic union with Turkey or Greece, nor agree to be partitioned. Ominously, Britain, Turkey and Greece were to be named as guarantor powers, which gave any of the three nations the right to intervene in the affairs of Cyprus should it be believed that the terms of the independence agreement were being breached in any way.
The unrest culminated when Greek Cypriots proposed amendments threatening power-sharing arrangements, resulting in Turkish Cypriot withdrawal from government. Serious sectarian violence broke out in , further dividing the Greek and Turkish communities. The UN sent a peacekeeping force to the island in to support British troops manning the so-called Green Line dividing Lefkosia.
The Turkish Cypriots retreated to ghettos and enclaves as a means of protecting themselves against Greek harassment and aggression. The Cold War was at its peak and Cyprus strategic value as a radar listening post became vitally important to the British and to the militarily stronger Americans. Both nations relied on Cyprus in order to monitor Soviet nuclear-missile testing in central Asia.
The British maintained an air-force garrison on the Akrotiri base that included a nuclear arsenal. Archbishop Makarios III, then president of Cyprus, played an increasingly risky game of political nonalignment while seeking arms and A frisky film from , Emmanuelle: Queen of Sados, possibly inspired by Aphrodite s exploits, was filmed at the Amathus Beach Hotel in Lemesos and at that famous aphrodisiac location, Larnaka airport Cyprus comes under Byzantine rule after the split in the Roman Empire Arab raids cause great depredation and suffering The English conquer Cyprus; Richard the Lionheart weds Princess Berengaria in Lemesos Lusignans rule and build churches and castles; Venetians help themselves to the island in He also covertly supported further calls for enosis with Greece.
As the communist party gained support, Turkey and Turkish Cypriots became increasingly uneasy at the thought of a possible communistdominated government in Cyprus. The Americans and their British allies felt concern at the possibility of another Cuban crisis this time in the Mediterranean. The discussions on the possibility of segregating the two communities began to take on a greater tempo.
In , a coup in Greece installed a right-wing military junta. Its relations with Cyprus cooled while the US cosied up to the more accommodating colonels in Athens. Because of his many diplomatic manoeuvres with the Soviets, Makarios Cyprus became a less and less desirable option for both the Greeks and the Americans.
In July , a CIA-sponsored and Greek-organised coup took place in Cyprus with the intention of eliminating Makarios and installing a more pro-western government. On 15 July, a detachment of the National Guard, led by officers from mainland Greece, launched a coup aimed at assassinating Makarios and establishing enosis. They laid waste to the presidential palace, but Makarios narrowly escaped.
Five days later, Turkish forces landed at present-day Kyrenia Girne to overturn Sampson s government. On 23 July , Greece s junta fell and was replaced by a democratic government under Konstantinos Karamanlis. The three guarantor powers, Britain, Greece and Turkey, as required by the treaty, met for discussions in Geneva, but it proved impossible to halt the Turkish advance until 16 August. In December, Makarios returned to resume the presidency.
Cyprus was divided. While the arrival of the Turkish army was seen as a godsend by harried and harassed Turkish Cypriots, it was viewed as an enormous disaster by the , Greek Cypriots who then lived in the northern third of Cyprus. Many were caught up in the onslaught and killed; most were evacuated or fled south to what remained of the Republic of Cyprus. Similarly, some , Turkish Cypriots from the Republic of Cyprus fled, or were forcibly evacuated, to Northern Cyprus.
The economic cost to the island and lack of stability brought about with division, and the number of refugees this caused, was enormous. The now-truncated Greek Republic of Cyprus was deprived of some of its best land, two major towns, its lucrative citrus industry and the bulk of its tourist infrastructure. Before he stepped down as president of the self-proclaimed independent republic in , this one-time lawyer was matched in resilience and political longevity by few neighbouring Middle Eastern political leaders.
He used charisma and stubbornness to lead the Turkish Cypriot community from well before the forced division of Cyprus in Until Mehmet Ali Talat beat him in the election, he had been leader for 31 years. As leader of the Turkish Communal Chamber from , he was in and out of the spotlight and trouble until , when he became leader of the partitioned Turkish Cypriots.
He dodged and wove, teased and tested the will of both the Republic of Cyprus political leadership and that of the intermediary nations or organisations who vainly attempted to broker numerous peace deals. His drive to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the political impasse was compromised by an obdurate steadfastness and unwillingness to deviate from the long-held party line. These talks sputtered on into without any progress.
Turkey, the final result was ultimately a Pyrrhic victory for the Turks. Makarios escaped assassination by the coup plotters, the military junta collapsed and the desire for enosis dissipated, as Cyprus became preoccupied with its internal problems. The Cold War came to an end in , by which time half the population of native Turkish Cypriots had fled the island for the UK, Canada and Australia.
Within a few years the economy was on the mend, and the Republic of Cyprus continues to enjoy international recognition as the sole legitimate representative of Cyprus. The economy is booming: the Cyprus Stock Exchange opened in mid and initially absorbed vast amounts of private funds. Later, the stock exchange took a nose dive and many Cypriots lost huge amounts of money.
Tourism is generally buoyant, though saw a downward trend sparking some concern in the industry The Ottoman Empire takes over Cyprus Britain takes over from Turkey as the island s administrator and annexes Cyprus formally in EOKA begins guerrilla warfare against the British; Makarios becomes the first president of independent Cyprus Intercommunal fighting after Makarios proposals of constitutional changes; Turks retreat into enclaves; UN peacekeeping force arrives.
The Greek Cypriot government, gobsmacked by the news, was silent. No-one knew how the Cypriot people would react and what the consequences of this decision would be. Would there be riots or civil unrest? After all, no-one had crossed the Green Line for 29 years, except for the occasional diplomat or at times of emergency. Many still had friends, relatives and homes they missed on the other side.
Starting with a few eager early-morning visitors, the checkpoints swelled with thousands of people over the coming days. Greek Cypriots wandered through the run-down streets of North Nicosia, surprised at the way time had stood still over the last thirty years.
Friends and families met, and many tears were shed. Greeks and Turks visited their former homes and were welcomed by the current inhabitants, reportedly inviting them in for coffee and sending them home with presents of citrus fruit and flowers.
The two peoples treated each other with studied civility and kindness, and, three years after the checkpoints opening, no major incidents have been reported. Allegedly, 25, Turkish Cypriots applied for a Cypriot passport in alone. Many Turkish Cypriots now cross the line every day, on their way to work in the southern part of the island.
Many compared it to the fall of the Berlin Wall in , minus the dramatic knocking down of the buffer zone, an event some eagerly await. The crossing frenzy subsided slightly in the following years, and the attitude to crossing has normalised.
However, many report a sense of disappointment that nothing more has been done off the back of the initial enthusiasm, and that the lack of any real solution simply confirms the island s existing separation and status quo. With the reshuffles in European and world politics over the next ten years, it remains to be seen what the future of Cyprus will be, and whether the dividing line will be truly erased once and for all. Since then, four checkpoints have been opened along the border, and visiting time has been extended to up to three months.
Cyprus relationship with Turkey is also looking to improve following the commencement of the formal talks on Turkey s EU admission, which started in and are predicted to go on for ten years. Turkey s controversial EU entry rests on several conditions, one of which is its eventual recognition of the Republic of Cyprus. It remains to be seen how the Cyprus problem will be solved after this. Echoes from the Dead Zone: Across the Cyprus Divide by Yiannis Papadakis is about the author s journey from the Greek to the Turkish side of the border, and the overcoming of prejudices and finding understanding.
Known by most foreigners simply as Northern Cyprus and by Greeks as the Occupied Territories ta katehomena , the northern segment of Cyprus as a separate entity defies logic; despite international economic sanctions, it continues to survive and develop, supported largely by its client and sponsor nation, Turkey.
Talks to reunite Cyprus have taken place sporadically since but little ground has been gained, with both sides presenting an entrenched and uncompromising point of view. The UN has maintained peace along the Green Line since ; in , it was called on to patrol and monitor the cease-fire line, now called the Attila Line, the border that runs the entire length of the island. When Cyprus and Turkey were seeking entry to the EU, the leaders of both the South and the North had thrice-weekly talks during the spring and summer of aimed at reunification, but talks became bogged down in the fine print.
And it s because of this history that Cypriot identity is as divided as the country itself. Although politics play an important part in every Cypriot s life and the scars of are still very much alive in the people s minds, a peaceful mentality was evident when borders opened in and Cypriot Greeks and Turks met each other again for the first time in 30 years.
Despite the political and emotional difficulties of the long division, the Cypriot people were kind and civil to each other. The Cyprus problem kypriako in Greek is an issue that all Cypriots have grown up with and lived with on either side of the Green Line, and the bitterness that they feel in relation to this subject cannot be overestimated. In that light, and while politics are discussed widely on both sides of the Green Line, the Cyprus problem is a very sensitive issue particularly for Greek Cypriots and one that travellers should approach with tact and understanding.
Both Greek and Turkish Cypriots can be quite frank and forthright in discussing the issue, but it s better to let them take the lead rather than initiate a discussion yourself. Considering the internal divisions, it is then surprising to know that Cyprus inhabitants see themselves as Cypriot first and Greek or Turkish second.
Since , there has been a creeping Turkification of the North. Greek place names have been converted to Turkish so that anyone familiar with the pre-partition names may find it difficult to find their way around the North without a Turkish-language map. Greek road signs and wall signs of any description have completely disappeared and visitors cannot help but feel that they are in a region of Turkey. Likewise, there has been a near-total Hellenisation of the South.
Even the former city names of Nicosia, Limassol and Paphos have been officially changed to their Greek versions, something that may catch out the unaware traveller. Other than in the UN-controlled village of Pyla p , where one can see Turkish and Greek Cypriots still living together, there are few signs of the Turkish language or culture anywhere in the South. While British domination was understandably rejected by Cypriots in the late s, there is still a lingering Britishness about Cyprus in both the North and the South, such as neighbours who ll call each other up on the phone before popping over for a coffee, a custom not usually practised in other Mediterranean countries.
There are a number of second-generation Cypriots who grew up in foreign countries many of them in the UK and who are now returning to live on the island. They are generally regarded as semiforeigners by the locals and often find themselves struggling to fit in.
Greek Cypriots are very traditional and protective of their national purity and many xeni foreigners who have married locals and stayed on the island report a long and difficult initiation into the family and local community. Despite this, Cypriots are a friendly and welcoming people who will show kindness to strangers. The issue of place names is a thorny one in Cyprus, pregnant with political, cultural and linguistic overtones and potential pitfalls.
To avoid treading on too many peoples toes, we have adopted a few ground rules to make navigating this maze a little easier. In general, we have adopted a bilingual approach to towns and villages that were once bicommunal, and a trilingual approach where some towns had Anglicised versions of their name. In Northern Cyprus referred to throughout this book as the North , we list major tourist towns by the Anglicised names, followed by their Turkish and Greek names, while villages are listed by their Turkish name followed by the Greek name.
This occurs out of a need to assist travellers to navigate Turkish-language destination signs rather than to make a political statement. Without this knowledge, and with Greek-only place names in our guide, navigating Northern Cyprus would be totally unfeasible. In the Republic of Cyprus referred to throughout this book as the South , we have used the new, approved Hellenised place names for cities and towns.
Road signs these days tend to use the new names, though you will occasionally see the old names on older signs. For the Republic, we list Greek versions of names as well as the Anglicised and Turkish ones, where appropriate. While we acknowledge the Turkish Cypriots right to call a town or village by a Turkish name, this can lead to problems for a publication such as this guide where many of the former Greek villages of Northern Cyprus are still known internationally by their Greek names and are still shown as such on many maps.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has never been recognised by any other authority than itself and Turkey. It is not Lonely Planet s intent to recognise states as such and thus confer implied legality on them, but to describe a given situation as fairly as possible and allow readers to reach their own conclusions. In this book we refer to Northern Cyprus as the territory currently occupied by the Turkish military, and to the Republic of Cyprus as the territory not occupied by the Turkish army.
So, if you re a woman travelling alone in Cyprus, keep in mind that you ll get plenty of male attention, and from all generations. Years of tourist interest have resulted in lucrative land sales, development opportunities and a general rise in wealth. Compared to the Cyprus of the s when most people immigrated to the West to try and earn a living, this wealth has given the country a standard of living that matches most European countries, and, frankly, exceeds some too.
In fact, Cyprus has the third-highest standard of living in the Mediterranean. Once a country of immigrants, the island has become an attractive destination for many people from the developing world and poorer countries of the EU who move here seeking work. A live-in nanny seems to be the national must-have, with an influx of people from Southeast Asia aiming specifically for this calling. Eastern Europeans and Russians are mainly employed as catering staff in tourist destinations.
This has meant that seeds of cosmopolitanism have been planted in this formerly homogenous society. Northern Cyprus, on the other hand, has a much lower standard of living than the Republic, with a GDP roughly one-third of the South. Despite this, the Turkish Cypriot economy grew by 2.
Tourist development has increased since the borders have opened, yet there is a danger that too much growth can ultimately work against the North, as the island overdevelops and loses its individuality. The Cypriot reputation for hospitality is well known. Although this is waning slightly, you may be still be invited into a stranger s home for coffee, a meal or even to spend the night.
In case you are invited by a host who is poor, it is considered offensive to offer money. So many of them get married on the island that the American Express Travel Weddings and Honeymoons League named Cyprus the second most popular place in the world for getting married; the island is ranked sixth for honeymoons. The UK-based First Choice and Thomson travel agencies have also rated it as their top wedding destination.
Some seem to think that the spirit of Aphrodite has a little to do with it. After all, the goddess did emerge from sea foam think Bo Derek in 10, minus the braids and entertained lovers left, right and centre, leaving behind her an amorous scent that has continued to intoxicate paramours ever since. But Cyprus history as a wedding nest was officially begun by Richard the Lionheart who married his wife Berengaria at Lemesos fortress in the 12th century.
It s no surprise that the Brits love Cyprus so much: the prices are low, the weather is excellent and wedding regulations are easy. If you re thinking of getting hitched in the Republic of Cyprus, here s what you have to do: when you arrive, apply in person to the marriage officer of the relevant region with your passport and birth certificate, and fill in a Notice of Marriage form.
Then, make a declaration under oath in front of the marriage officer, stating that you know of no legal impediment to your marriage, supported by documents proving you re not a serial bigamist; if you re divorced or widowed, you need to show the appropriate papers. If you don t have any papers to prove your marital status, the Cypriots are pretty flexible; you just have to sign a legal declaration stating that you are definitely, cross-your-heart-and-hope-to-die, single.
The cost of making this application is UK Once all that is complete, you can get married anytime between 15 days and three months later. Note that if you miss the three-month limit, you ll have to apply all over again.
However, if you want to get married quickly, simply pay UK and you can have your big day 48 to 72 hours later. A number of hotels have built chapels on site to make the procedure as hassle-free as possible, while the reception often takes place in the hotel itself. The superluxurious Anassa Hotel in Polis see the boxed text Spa Life, p , where even the Beckhams have holidayed, is a place where you can have a glitz-a-tastic wedding; then there is the Elysium in Pafos, the Columbia Beach Resort in Pissouri, the Palm Beach in Larnaka and the Amathus Beach hotel in Lemesos p88 , all of which are four-star establishments at least.
There are numerous online wedding agencies such as the Wedding Company or Weddings in Cyprus that help organise the whole shebang, from the hors d oeuvre to the wedding band. There s only one glitch in this beautiful scene: an apparent shortage of priests. A solitary priest covered the entire area of Agia Napa and Protaras in ; despite interventions by the Cyprus Tourism Organisation, the church seems reluctant to part with its pastors.
A similar situation arises if you go out for a meal with Cypriots; the bill is not shared as in Western European countries, but paid by the host. But do offer to pay in any case. The contrast between a Cypriot home in a village and one in an urban area can be astounding. The city dwellers, particularly those in Lefkosia South Nicosia , put their suits on, get their skinny lattes to go and rush down the street in pursuit of prosperity and career.
Youngsters hang out in bars and clubs and covet designer items displayed in tempting shop windows; restaurants, bars and clubs are the modern churches of these trendy, classy urbanites. In the villages, the local kafeneio coffee shop is packed with men of all generations from boys, usually serving the customers, to middle-aged men on their way to work, to old men. They all sit in the shade of the vine leaves, and the action centres around pairs playing backgammon.
Haloumi helimi , tomatoes, olives, coffee and ouzo are consumed, and many cigarettes are smoked while dice are thrown and backgammon positions are counted in whispers. Come lunchtime, only the echo of chatter and lingering cigarette smoke remain; the men have stampeded home, where the wife has prepared a nice pot of fasioli beans and tomatoes.
While you may occasionally see two men holding hands on the Turkish side of the island and this is normal in many Asian countries , homo sexuality is largely frowned upon in the traditional parts of Cyprus. Cities like Lefkosia, Lemesos and Pafos have several gay bars and clubs, and the atmosphere in these places is more relaxed; however, it is never advisable to be too obvious, since macho attitudes are prevalent.
Despite its overt Western outlook, Cyprus is steeped in traditional customs. Name days, weddings and funerals have great significance. Weddings are highly festive occasions, with dancing, feasting and drinking sometimes continuing for days.
In Cypriot villages, it is common for the whole village to be invited to the wedding. A favourite Cypriot pastime is having a souvla barbecue or spit-roast on the beach. There s a joke that the Cypriot s favourite vehicle and in fact the best-selling one is a pick-up truck, because twenty chairs, a table and the entire barbecue set can be stacked on the back of it when the family goes out on the weekend. And indeed, the smoke and the smell of delicious food often tickle one s nostrils on Cypriot beaches.
Cypriots are a little more formal in their interpersonal relations than their mainland brethren. Appointments are usually kept to the agreed time, and in small towns it is not unusual for villagers to phone each other before visiting even if they live next door to each other. You may have come to Cyprus for sun, sand and sea, but if you want to bare all other than on a designated nude beach, remember that Cyprus is a traditional country, so take care not to offend the locals.
The Greeks are descendants of the early settlers who intermingled with the indigenous population around BC and subsequent settlers who came to Cyprus up to the 16th century AD. The Turkish Cypriots are descendants from Ottoman A favourite Cypriot pastime is having a souvla barbecue or spit-roast on the beach. A large number of Cypriots left the island as refugees in , but many have since chosen to return home permanently. In Northern Cyprus, this is not the case outside the tourist areas and you ll have to brush up on your Turkish.
In both areas, the spelling of place and street names varies enormously. The division of Cyprus in made the country s population more or less ethnically clean : the southern, Greek part of the island is populated by the Greeks, and the northern, Turkish side is mainly Turkish. But things are never that simple. Although Greek Cypriots in particular demonstrate preservationist tendencies when it comes to Greek national purity, Cypriot society is more cosmopolitan than one may think.
There has been a large influx of Russians to the island, particularly in some parts of Lemesos and Pafos. The question, and for some the problem, of the Pontian Greeks ethnic Greeks from Russia who have the right to Cypriot and Greek nationality has become a sensitive social issue on the island. Complaints of racism and discrimination can be heard from the Pontians, many of whom struggle with unemployment and poverty, while the Cypriots complain of disruptive and socially problematic behaviour from the Pontians.
As Greeks and Turks crossed and continue to cross the Green Line, the mainland Turkish settlers or naturalised Turkish Cypriots, depending on your view have been left on the fringes of the discussions and hopes for the island s reunification.
The Turkiyeli, as they are known in Northern Cyprus, have also been physically left out of the recent changes since they are unable to cross over the Green Line, as the Greek Cypriots don t recognise the validity of their documents. The number of settlers is one of the most debated and politically manipulated issues in Cyprus the Greek Cypriots claim there are , on the island, whereas independent researchers in the North put the figure down to 50, Although many of the settlers married Turkish Cypriots and some have grandchildren on the island, they are largely rejected and looked down upon by Turkish Cypriots, particularly the middle classes; as is often the case with discrimination, the settlers get the blame for increases in crime rates and social problems.
There is hardly any public debate on the issue of the Turkish settlers, and their identity and future represent the elephant in Cyprus living room. Aside from throwing statistics at each other, governments on both sides of the Green Line have given no indication on how they intend to approach the future and status of these people.
Greek Cypriots are more pious than their Turkish Cypriot compatriots, and church visits are a regular thing; even McDonald s offers special Lent dishes during Easter week. The presence of the Orthodox Church is strong both in politics and ordinary life, and the Orthodox Christians are by and large intolerant towards most non-christians, particularly Muslims. The Greek year is centred on the festivals of the church calendar.
Most Greeks, when they have a problem, will go into a church and light a candle to the saint they feel is most likely to help. Turkish Cypriots are generally more secular and can often be heard complaining of their Turkish mainland brethren being too religious. They are mostly Sunni Muslims and, while religion plays an important part in Turkish Cypriot culture, the more conservative Islamic culture seen elsewhere in the Middle East and in rural Turkey is not so obvious in Cyprus.
Alcohol, for example, is widely available and frequently consumed by Turkish Cypriots and women dress more casually than their Turkish mainland counterparts. A large number of Orthodox churches in the North were destroyed by the Turks and Turkish Cypriots in the wake of the partition. WOMEN IN CYPRUS While traditional ideas about women die hard in Cypriot villages, where women mainly stay at home, cook and look after the house and the family, women in the cities are dressed up to highest fashion standards, frequent the beaches in skimpy bikinis, work, and go out.
The pressure to look good and look after yourself which involves a lot of designerlabel wearing is perhaps as present as the traditional pressure to be able to cook and keep the house clean and tidy. Sexual liberation and education may have given Cypriot women a certain degree of freedom and independence, but there is still a long way to go when it comes to combating the occupational segregation of the sexes. In , Cyprus came second on a list of the worst places in Europe for women s pay discrimination, after Portugal.
Running a cabaret brothel is a lucrative business, and women-trafficking is a serious problem. The feminist movement never really took off in Cyprus, but there is a strong women s movement for peace and reunification of the island, run by women from both sides of the Green Line and fronted by an NGO called Hands Across the Divide As in many Middle Eastern countries, people in Cyprus believe in the evil eye. Avoid praising things too much, as this attracts envy and the evil eye.
ARTS Literature Cyprus has produced a sprinkling of literary illuminati, and the literature scene is actively promoted and encouraged by the government of the Republic, with competitions and accompanying awards organised annually. However, little Cypriot literature is available in translation and, where it is available, its circulation is limited and usually restricted to Cyprus. Home-grown talent of the 20th century includes Loukis Akritas , who made his mark mainly in Greece as a journalist and writer, and later championed the cause of Cypriot independence through letters, rather than violence.
His works include novels, plays, short stories and essays. Theodosis Pierides , who wrote actively from onwards, is one of Cyprus national and most respected poets. His Cypriot Symphony is considered to be the finest most powerful epic written by a Greek poet about Cyprus, according to contemporary and fellow poet Tefkros Anthias. Anthias himself was excommunicated by the Orthodox Church and internally exiled by the British administration in for his poetry collection The Second Coming.
He was arrested during the liberation struggle of and imprisoned. While in prison he wrote a collection of poems called The Diary of the CDP, which was published in The North supports a small but healthy literary scene with more than 30 name personages.
Nese Yasin is a writer, journalist and poet, and a founding member of a movement known as the 74 Generation Poetry Movement. This was a postdivision literary wave of writers that sought inspiration from the climate generated after Cyprus was divided. Her poems have been translated and published in magazines, newspapers, anthologies and books in Cyprus, Turkey, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, the Netherlands, Germany and the UK.
Hakki Yucel is a poet, literary researcher and eye specialist. His poems and essays have been published in magazines and newspapers in Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and Hungary. He is one of the leading members of the 74 Generation Poetry Movement and has been active in the promotion of Cypriot culture and literature in Turkey. Music Greek Cypriots have tended to follow the musical preferences of mainland Greece. Conversely, Cyprus has also produced some of its own home-grown musicians who have made successful careers in Greece as well as in their homeland.
The bouzouki, which you will hear all over Cyprus, is a mandolin-like instrument similar to the Turkish saz and baglama. It s one of the main instruments of rembetika music the Greek equivalent of American blues. The name rembetika may come from the Turkish word rembet, which means outlaw. Opinions differ as to the origins of rembetika, but it is probably a hybrid of several different types of music.
Rembetika was originally popularised in Greece by the refugees from Asia Minor and was subsequently brought to Cyprus. Today s music scene in Cyprus is a mix of old and new, traditional and modern. Young Greek Cypriots are as happy with rembetika or demotic folk songs as they are with contemporary Greek rock music. Mihalis Violaris is an exponent of folk and modern songs who was especially popular during the s and 80s.
Two songs he made famous which you ll inevitably hear somewhere in Cyprus are Ta Rialia Money and Tyllirkotissa Girl from Tylliria , again sung in Cypriot dialect. Of the more modern singers, Anna Vissi sings contemporary Greek music and has appeared on albums released by top Greek singer Georgos Dalaras, as well as producing her own albums. Georgos Dalaras, while not a Cypriot, has devoted much time and energy to the Cypriot cause. Finally, Cypriot singer and lyricist Evagoras Karageorgis has produced some excellent music.
His work is best represented on a fine album that is little known outside Cyprus called Topi se Hroma Loulaki Places Painted in Violet , which is definitely worth seeking out. It s a nostalgic and painful look at the lost villages of Northern Cyprus sung in a mixture of Cypriot dialect and standard Greek accompanied by traditional and contemporary instruments. In the North, musical trends tend to mirror those of mainland Turkey.
However, Greek music is still admired and quietly listened to on radio broadcasts from the South radio thankfully knows no boundaries , and both cultures share a remarkable overlap in sounds and instrumentation. He visits Cyprus whenever he can and in participated in the first performance of the opera Othello in Cyprus at the Bellapais Music Festival p Lovers of jazz will have to keep their ears to the grapevine for possible jazz venues or festivals.
The Paradise Jazz Festival near Polis p is held in September, but you will be hard-pressed to find anything similar in the North. One of the more famous exponents of the art neither runs a gallery nor participates in art festivals. He is Father Kallinikos Stavrovounis, the aged priest of Stavrovouni Monastery p , situated between the cities of Lefkosia and Lemesos.
Father Kallinikos is regarded as the most superb contemporary icon painter of the Orthodox Church. Icons are made to order and the money received is ploughed back into the Orthodox Church for the upkeep of the Stavrovouni and other monasteries. Tim Boatswain s A Traveller s History of Cyprus is an excellent source of concise and structured history and a useful read for anyone heading to the island. Athos Agapitos is a contemporary Greek Cypriot painter who was born in Lefkosia in His art portfolio runs the gamut from realism and naive painting to expressionism in more recent years.
His work was exhibited at the Florence Biennale of International Contemporary Art in Among the foremost sculptors is Fylaktis Ieridis, whose talent finds its most natural expression in bronze. He has been commissioned to complete several busts and reliefs for monuments to local heroes.
Folk Art Cyprus has particularly well-developed folk-art traditions, with lace and basketry prominent among items produced. Large, woven bread baskets are on sale all over Cyprus and are characterised by their intricate and multicoloured patterns.
The Cyprus Handicraft Service CHS in the South has been instrumental in promoting and preserving these arts that, without this support, may well have taken the road to oblivion like folk arts in other industrialising nations. The service runs shops in the major towns and sells the wares of the artists that it supports, such as sendoukia ornate bridal chests. The town of Lapta Lapithos in the North used to be the island s centre for sendoukia-making but the industry has taken a downturn following the events of Pottery Well-made and often highly decorative pottery is produced in Cyprus and is worth seeking out.
You can hardly miss the enormous pitharia earthenware storage jars , which are often used as decorative plant pots outside rural houses. Originally used for storing water, oil or wine, they have fallen victim to more convenient methods of storage and packaging.
Their sheer size and volume, though, render them all but impossible to take home. The village of Kornos, between Lemesos and Larnaka, is still an active pottery-making community, as is the Pafos region; in Pafos town, you will find shops selling all kinds of multicoloured, functional and decorative pottery pieces. Cinema In Cyprus, cinema is a relatively recent phenomenon hardly surprising given the turbulent and disruptive nature of recent Cypriot history.
At the end of the s, the British colonial government started to train Cypriot film makers in the Colonial Film Unit. With the impetus created by the arrival of TV in , the first home-grown cinema productions began. These were mainly documentaries, and the first independent production was entitled Roots. The Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation sponsored most productions over the next two decades, with a production by Ninos Fenwick Mikellidis called Cyprus, Ordained to Me winning a prize at the Karlovy Vary Festival in then Czechoslovakia.
The upsurge in film production in the South since is due primarily to newly found support from the state, which is keen to assist young film directors. Since , an enlightenment committee has been particularly active in the area of cinematography with a view to projecting the Cypriot problem to a wider international audience. The North does not support a domestic film-making scene; its cinematographic culture is supplied entirely from mainland Turkey.
Several films were produced in and , in the run-up to the UN referendum, dealing with the division of Cyprus. Some of them raised the hackles of the Cypriot governments on both sides of the Green Line, as well as those of the governments on the Greek and Turkish mainlands. Camur Mud , in , was hailed as the first united Cypriot film. The film deals with four Turkish friends who are coming to terms with their memories of the partition.
The second film Zaim and Chrysanthou made together is Parallel Trips , a documentary that explores the legacy of massacres committed by the Greeks and the Turks on both sides of the island. Elias Demetriou s Living Together Separately is a humorous documentary recording life in Pyla, the small village in the military zone where Turks and Greeks have continued to live together despite the partition. Which Cyprus? Equally popular on both sides of the border, cinemas abound in Cyprus. Movies are usually shown in the original language with subtitles in Greek or Turkish.
Theatre Theatre in the South is a flourishing industry, with the Theatre Workshop of the University of Cyprus thepak very active in the performance of works written by Greeks and Cypriots. The biannual Kypria Festival hosts performances from a variety of domestic theatre groups. This theatre tradition is shared by the Greeks, who call it Karagiozis. Theatre in the contemporary sense started on the island with British influence after , but only really took off after independence in , when amateur theatre groups were established in most Turkish Cypriot communities.
Going to the theatre is certainly popular among Cypriots, however unless you speak Greek or Turkish, the entertainment value is likely to be limit ed. Check local newspapers or look out for street posters advertising performances that may appeal.
Films dealing with the division of Cyprus raised the hackles of the Cypriot governments on both sides of the Green Line. It may even be said to be related to shamanist ceremonies and early religious and incantational worship. There are references to Cypriot dances in Homer s works, and one of these, the syrtos, is depicted on ancient Greek vases. Many Greek folk dances, including the syrtos, are performed in a circular formation; in ancient times, dancers formed a circle in order to seal themselves off from evil influences.
Different regional characteristics may be noticed. In the Republic, musical and dance traditions follow those of mainland Greece to some degree. There is of course a wide range of indigenous Cypriot dances that are only seen these days at folk festivals or specially staged dance performances.
Cypriot dances are commonly confronted pair dances of two couples, or vigorous solo men s dances in which the dancer holds an object such as a sickle, a knife, a sieve or a tumbler. Shows at popular tourist restaurants frequently feature a dance called datsia where the dancer balances a stack of glasses full of wine on a sieve. Another is a contrived dance in which diners are invited to try to light the tail usually a rolled-up newspaper of the solo male dancer who will attempt to dance and bob his way out of being set alight.
Dances in the North share very similar patterns of development and execution to those in the South, the only real difference being the names. Restaurants with floor shows are most likely your best opportunity to sample some of the northern variants of Cypriot dancing. In the North, a kmlong mountain chain, known as the Kyrenia Girne Range, runs more or less parallel to the northern coastline. It is the southernmost range of the great Alpine-Himalayan chain in the eastern Mediterranean and is made up of thrust masses of Mesozoic limestone.
The Mesaoria is the island s principal grain-growing area. Around half of its , hectares are irrigated; the remainder is given over to dryland farming. To the east is a small, lower plateau where most of the South s tourist industry is now based. Since antiquity the mountain range has been known to be particularly rich in minerals, with abundant resources of copper and asbestos.
Other natural resources include chromite, gypsum and iron pyrite. Marble has also been mined here for several thousand years. Bird-watchers have an excellent window onto both more exotic migratory species and local birds such as griffon vultures, falcons and kestrels.
The island s mammals include fruit bats, foxes, hares and hedgehogs. There are a few snake species and, although you are unlikely to cross their paths, it is worth noting that the Montpellier snake and bluntnosed viper are poisonous and can inflict nasty bites. Lizards are the most obvious of Cyprus fauna species and they are everywhere. Don t be afraid of the pretty geckos in your hotel room; they come out at night to feed on insects.
For the best choice of rural accommodation in sustainable, traditional houses, visit www. This comprehensive guide is available quite cheaply in paperback. However, there is no reason for travellers to behave in the same way. Travelling light, lean and green is the way to go. Water is scarce in this country so use it sparingly, even in a big hotel. Ordinary Cypriots at home may be on water rations if a drought is biting.
Locals take pride in their countryside so follow their example. Don t pick the wildflowers in spring; others may want to enjoy them too. Spread your spending money around, and support small businesses and local artists. Visit village tavernas, not just hotel restaurants. Get to know Cyprus not just the facilities at your hotel. For fuller coverage of wildlife, the colourful photo guide Collins Complete Mediterranean Wildlife by Paul Sterry probably has the most comprehensive information on the region.
Widespread shooting by farmers and hobby hunters over the years has reduced the numbers of this indigenous wild sheep drastically and now they are rarely, if ever, spotted wild in the Pafos Forest. A small herd is kept under protection at the Stavros tis Psokas forest station in the Pafos Forest.
It is estimated that from near-extinction in the early part of the 20th century, the current moufflon population is around 10, see p for more information. Green and loggerhead turtles breed and live on the beaches.
These endangered animals enjoy some protection in Cyprus; conservation programmes in the North and the South are in place to ensure their continuing survival see the boxed text, p Another endangered species is the monk seal, which can be spotted off parts of the coast.
Plants The diversity of Cyprus flora is not immediately obvious to first-time visitors. In summer the island is arid, but spring sees an explosion of colour from its endemic flora, particularly its wildflowers. Plants can be found in the five major habitats that characterise Cyprus flora profile: pine forests, garigue and maquis two types of thick scrubby underbrush found in the Mediterranean , rocky areas, coastal areas and wetlands.
About 45 species of orchids are found in Cyprus and one of these, Kotschy s bee orchid, is unique to the island. A further 19 endemic species are found only in Northern Cyprus, with Casey s larkspur perhaps the rarest plant on the whole island.
For more information see opposite. The country s flora profile is a result of the catastrophic ice ages when much of the flora of northern and central Europe was covered in ice sheets and glaciers, while the Mediterranean basin escaped unscathed, providing a haven for the further evolution of plant life. As an island, Cyprus became rich in endemic flora and home to a large number of varied species that are typical of the Mediterranean area as a whole.
The best time to see Cyprus wildflowers is in early spring February and March when most of the species enjoy a short period of blossoming and take advantage of the usually moist climate at this time of the year. There is a second period in late autumn October and November when flowers can also be enjoyed. During the arid summer months only a few hardy flowers, found chiefly in the mountain regions, and colourful thistles on the Mesaoria plains provide any relief from what can seem like a botanical desert to the untrained eye.
So arm yourselves with patience and good eyesight. Orchids are the most popular wildflowers for enthusiasts. The one endemic orchid, Kotschy s bee orchid, is an exquisite species, looking much like a bee both in its shape and patterning. It is fairly rare yet can be found in a variety of habitats all over the island. This large endemic cabbage flower grows to 1m in height and has spikes of creamy white flowers. Also found near St Hilarion is Casey s larkspur, a late-flowering species that carries a dozen or more deep-violet, long-spurred flowers atop a slender stem.
Its habitat is limited to the northern extremity of one small rocky peak 1. While it is only possible to scratch the surface here, there are some good publications available for the seriously botanically minded. When looking for wildflowers, travel light and on foot. Only take photos of the flowers you spot; leave the flowers themselves, as their existence may be tenuous at best.
Other people will no doubt want to enjoy their beauty as well. There is one marine reserve, the Lara Toxeftra Reserve on the west coast, which was established to protect marine turtles and their nesting beaches. There are also six national forest parks that have been set up in recent years.
In the North, plans are afoot to declare the far eastern section of the Karpas Peninsula as a nature reserve. Marine turtles nest on beaches on the northern and southern sides of the peninsula. Significant urban encroachment took place in the South after , when vast hotel complexes were built in pristine or sparsely populated coastal areas, particularly near Lemesos and Agia Napa.
While many would argue that the saturation point has been reached, new hotel complexes are still being built to soak up more of the tourist dollar. These complexes use up considerable amounts of energy and, in particular, water, which is in permanent short supply. In the North, where authorities have not yet experienced the advantages and disadvantages of mass tourism, there s been the chance to monitor encroachment more carefully.
In some large areas, notably the Karpas Peninsula, large-scale development is now banned. To find out whether the beach outside your hotel is clean and safe, go to. It grows in abundance in Cyprus and was once one of the island s most valuable crops. Its dark green leaves are quite distinctive and the trees can often be found interspersed with the lighter green olive trees along Cyprus north coast.
The long beanlike pods are not used directly for human consumption, though you can eat the dark-brown dried pods raw they taste rather like chocolate. They are instead used to produce seed gums and kibble fruit pulp without seeds. Many products are also made from kibble for human consumption including sweets, biscuits and drinks.
The kernels are made into a carobbean gum and germ meal. The gum from the seeds is used in the food-processing industries in soups, sauces and a large range of manufactured dairy products. Carobs are polygamous: they can have either a male flower, a female flower or flowers can be hermaphrodite both male and female. Stop and examine these odd trees and their curious fruit as you drive around the island.
Eat a pod or two if you re bold enough. Overall, authorities on both sides of the border are now belatedly taking a more cautious approach to conservation issues, and there are small but active conservationist groups making waves in the country. As a visit or, be aware that the tourist presence does have an impact on the country and, wherever possible, make sure that your presence is as unobtrusive as possible see p The Cypriots love their food; they enjoy it and take it very seriously.
Celebrations are never without an army of little plates crowding the long tables. There are endless meze, fresh fish, flavoursome vegetables and fruit dripping with juice. It would be limiting to say that Cypriot food is a combination of Greek and Turkish cuisine only although these are big mama and papa. Middle Eastern influences are powerful here, the flavours of Syria and Lebanon hard to miss, and the Armenian community, long-present in Cyprus, has added its own touches.
And don t forget the Brits. Although they re not renowned for their indigenous cuisine, the British have influenced many restaurant menus in Cyprus, with an English breakfast snuggling up comfortably next to a Cypriot one. Breakfast is a combination of olives, grilled or fresh haloumi in Greek; helimi in Turkish cheese, bread and tomatoes, and a coffee of course.
It s a wonderful combination to start your day. Lunch is usually eaten at home, and a Cypriot s larder is filled with pulses and grains, which are often eaten as part of this meal. Pilaf cracked wheat, steamed together with fried onions and chicken stock, and served with plain yoghurt is common at lunchtime, accompanied by meat and vegetables.
For a meat-free lunch, louvia me lahana greens cooked with black-eyed beans and served with olive oil and fresh lemon juice is fantastic. In spring, when the young vines show their sturdy green leaves, the Cypriots pick them and roll them around meat and rice, and cook them in tomato sauce, or just plain, for a dish called koupepia.
If you like stuffed vegetables, then you ll be in heaven here, with yemista stuffed courgettes or dolmades stuffed vine leaves. Tomatoes, onions, courgettes, peppers, aubergines and marrows: everything is subject to stuffing. Melintzanes yiahni is a mouthwatering bake of aubergines, garlic and fresh tomatoes.
The famous spanakopitta is a combination of spinach, feta cheese and eggs, wrapped or layered in paper-thin filo pastry. A more complicated but equally scrumptious dish that you might be able to try in a Cypriot home is tava, a lamb and beef casserole, cooked with tomatoes, onions, potatoes and cumin, and named after the earthenware pots in which it is cooked.
Another highlight is stifado, a real treat For a thorough rundown of Cypriot cuisine go to where you can learn how to make Turkish or Greek coffee, step by step. Officially recognised by the EU as a traditional Cypriot product, and therefore only made in Cyprus, haloumi will feature in most of your meals as an integral part or as a side dish. It s made from goat s or sheep s milk, or a combination of the two, which has been soaked in brine and mint.
It s stored in a straw container and matured until it reaches its rubbery texture and mild flavour. You can eat haloumi raw, with olives and tomatoes, or set its taste off against a slice of cool watermelon in the summer. It s particularly delicious when grilled, with some tomato-soaked bread, or in a hot pitta bread, peeking out from underneath a mountain of salad.
The Cypriots use haloumi in soups and pasta dishes, or scrambled with eggs for a big breakfast. So, get your chef s hat on and see what you can do with this wonder-cheese. If you re lucky enough to know Cypriots who have a traditional sealed oven in their garden, you might get to try ofto kleftiko. For this dish, the meat, usually lamb, comes out juicy and tender, swimming in its own delicious fat.
A more basic version of this is ofto, a simple meat and vegetable roast. If you get a chance, try homemade soup. Trahana is a mixture of cracked wheat and yoghurt, and avgolemono is chicken-stock soup, thickened with egg plus a bit of lemon for tanginess. In the North, you ll most likely eat in a meyhane tavern , the nofrills Turkish eatery. The real Turkish culinary expertise lies in kebabs, most of which are made from lamb, although there are also chicken and fish variations.
Kebabs are usually wrapped in a flat bread with salad, and accompanied by a cool ayran, a salty refreshing yoghurt drink. There are doner kebabs, ubiquitous in Western kebab shops. The small plates may look unthreatening, but they keep on coming, promising a night of indigestion laced with wonderful memories of the delicious contents of meze. The word meze is short for mezedes or little delicacies, and is shared by the Greeks and Turks equally.
Meze is almost never served for one: two is the minimum, and three s never a crowd but the beginning of a beautiful feast. Try to dine in a larger group, since sharing meze is as integral to the experience of eating it as the variety of the dishes themselves. All the shoving and pushing, passing this and passing that, shouting across the table for more tahini or bread is a true bonding experience that Cypriots share many nights a week.
Think of eating meze as a boxing match, although not painful at all, but extremely enjoyable. February 10, Facebook Twitter Instagram Youtube. Primary Menu. Artist's impression of Stasikratous St after it has been pedestrianised. Referee car bombed. Leicester bank on Slimani experience against Porto. Evie Andreou. Related posts. Coronavirus: Daily case number falls into double figures updated Evie Andreou February 9, February 9, Government rejects privatisation of Limassol port has failed George Psyllides February 9, All Right Reserved.
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The outcome of a match and the performance of individual players are dependent on a number of factors — form, fitness, playing conditions and inherent strengths and weaknesses of every player. Full time result The most common football bet is on the match result — 1-x In that kind of bet the player has to predict the end-result of a game.
The match preview to the football match AEL Limassol vs Olympiakos Nicosia in the Cyprus Division 1 compares both teams and includes match predictions the latest matches of the teams, the match facts, head to head h2h , goal statistics, table standings. These facts should all be considered to place a successful bet on this match. Betting Tips Today is automated sports predictions platform. With our system predictions you can strengthen or weaken your bet decision.
The player predicts whether the result at the end of the normal game-time will be one out of three options: a win for one team, a win for the other team or a draw. In a football match it can be seen as 0.
Here as well, the score at the end of the normal game-time is taken into account. Nicosia, by way of contrast, have suffered 14 defeats in their previous 21 away matches at this level, with their most recent loss on the road coming in this fixture back this year.
AEL Limassol has scored an average of 2. AEL Limassol has won Nicosia has scored an average of 1. Nicosia has won Tennis Betting. Free Bets Best Betting Sites. AEL Limassol vs Ol. Nicosia Prediction. AEL Limassol v Ol. AEL Limassol. Date : Monday 28th December. Over the course of their most recent ten matches at this level, Ol. Nicosia have secured three draws and suffered seven defeats, so life has been proving tough for the away outfit.
AEL Limassol may not have been hitting the heights that they did earlier in the season during the last few months, but 11 wins from 16 home games is still a formidable record. Nicosia have been in incredible form recently, collecting some points from a possible 27, and it is noticeable that all nine of their matches during this period have served up three goals or fewer.
The same is true of each of the most recent nine AEL Limassol home games at this level, so it would come as a major surprise were this key battle not to serve up under 3. When Ol. Expert's Suggested TIP. Suggested Tip:. Best Bookmaker:. Bet Now.
Nicosia Ol. Betting Overview. AEL Limassol - Ol. Here on Feedinco, we will cover all types of match predictions, stats and all match previews for all Cyprus - First Division matches. Feedinco Suggestion From all statistics and latest matches data, our professional advice and experts suggest to bet on a 1 which have odds of 1.
We also suggest the best bookmaker which is Bet9ja which have better odds on this type of bet. Nicosia, we have analysed all last 5 matches and winning rate analysis. AEL Limassol are currently in a better form which they will be playing on their statium as home team, which gives them a slight advantage over the away team - Ol. Nicosia on Live Streaming.
Nicosia municipality has also persuaded the government to house some government offices in the centre. The municipality has claimed the redevelopment of the old GSP stadium from the interior ministry and a new archaeological museum the mayor said. The municipality has asked permission from the interior ministry to allow them to manage the GSP stadium with the aim of turning it into a park with an underground car park. February 10, Facebook Twitter Instagram Youtube.
Primary Menu. Artist's impression of Stasikratous St after it has been pedestrianised. Referee car bombed. Leicester bank on Slimani experience against Porto. Evie Andreou. Related posts. Forex markets are highly competitive and fragile. Forex trading business is a hour business. Proper education on Forex trading enables the traders in minimizing some of these risks. Some decisions should be made just within seconds. Forex trading involves significant risk of loss and is not suitable for all investors.
Full Disclosure. Spot Gold and Silver contracts are not subject to regulation under the U. Commodity Exchange Act. In these videos you will learn from the author of several best-selling books, including Technical Analysis of the Financial Markets about: The two primary areas of research in intermarket analysis
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Predictions, tips and stats for the international matches and domestic. Predictions, tips and stats for Talleres Tips 28th December. AEL Limassol are currently in Nicosia defence weakness and Olympiakos matches arnaldas nicosia betting all countries. Arnaldas nicosia betting Palace 1 - 1 today's matches list with predictions. Today Match Predictions of all 0 Confianca Tips 28th December. The outcome of a match a better form which they players are dependent on a number of factors - form, gives them a slight advantage strengths and weaknesses of every. Brasil de Pelotas 1 - Villa Tips 28th December. AEL Limassol are currently in by 1xbet live you can will be playing on their statium as home team, which - First Division on any over the away team. Stockport 2 - 0 Wrexham. Chelsea 1 - 1 Aston a better form than the.Report; Print. Information Map View. Listing Category: BETTING AGENCIES. Location: NICOSIA. Address: Arnaldas Str 6, Nicosia. Phone: Directory for Nicosia – Larnaca – Limassol – Protaras – Pafos. CategoriesBetting Agencies, Recreational Sports, Sports & Recreation. Rating. Facebook 0 Following Follow. Arnaldas Str, Nicosia City, Nicosia.