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Many of their springs are boiling hot; others still more singular, are colder than ice, and yet never freeze. In several places, they have fountains, that throw up a kind of oil on their surface, which the peasants burn in lamps, and use for many other purposes. There is still one more remarkable at Nicosia, called Il fonia Canaletto. Brydone is of opinion, that not only Mount Aetna, but the greatest part of Sicily, and almost the whole of the circumjacent islands, have been originally formed by subterraneous fire; from the distant hot springs, and from throwing lava, pumice, and tuffa, at a great distance from Aetna.

At Trapany is a considerable coral-fishery; in short, whatever seems requisite in point of necessity, delight, or ornament, this country affords in such a liberal manner; that the inhabitants, notwithstanding how much it is burdened by their viceroys, live at their ease and grow rich. The great standing commodity, as I have observed, is wheat.

They preserve their grain, not by exposing it to the air, as we do, but by shutting it up in pits, or where the soil is dry, or in caverns in the rock. Great quantities are sent annually to Venice, to supply the glass-houses. Their honey is delicious, even superior to that of Minorca. It is found by the peasants in the hollows of trees, and rocks.

The sugar-cane thrives well here, and they make sugar enough for home-consumption. The juice is squeezed out of the roots; after which it is boiled to a consistency, and formed into cakes, which are packed up with bay-leaves, and exported in the same order as we receive them. In some of the Northern parts of the island, they find shell-fish, that produces a kind of flax, of which gloves and stockings are made.

This is the muscle, found in great quantities at Tarentum. The pistachio nut is much cultivated here, and with great success. But of all the variety cultivated in Sicily, the manna-tree is esteemed the most profitable. It is a kind of ash, and resembles it much. They renew these incisions every day during the season; wounding the tree on one side only, reserving the other side for the next year.

It is also well watered; for it has five principal rivers. SICILY has had many masters, and being classic ground, it may not be unentertaining to our readers, to have a short sketch of its history. This island was invaded by the Greeks, six or seven centuries before the birth of Christ, and they became blended with the natives.

Aristocracy prevailed first; tyranny succeeded, under Phalaris os Agrigentum, six hundred years before Christ; and democracy followed. Syracuse went to pieces by dissention, and their arts and sciences fell before it. The old inhabitants, the Siculi, kept the midland county, and the Greeks the eastern coasts. Dionysius, the elder, had the supreme command at Syracuse.

But the Sicilian forces were men of no principle; murder, and riot ensued upon the victory. At this time, a crew of miscreant Romans took Messina, slaughtered the inhabitants; eslablished a republic there, and became troublesome to Hiero II. This began the first punic war. This did for some time; but the vanquished party gaining strength, Hannibal, Hamilcar 's son, persuaded them to renew the combat; and for sixteen years carried war into the heart of the Roman territories.

This was the second punic war. Syracuse was now independent; but Marcellus soon after besieged it, under the advice of Archimedes, and took it. In , George Maniaces was sent with great force, by the Greek empire, to attack Sicily. He did this, in conjunction with some Norman troops, whom he took into pay, and succeeded. Robert and Roger, Normans of Hauteville, afterwards conquered Sicily on their own account. He was succeeded by Simon, his eldest son, and Simon by Roger, in , who called himself king.

Hence the kingdom descended, from son to son, till the reign of William III. But, a day of retribution came at last; Sicily had been revenged, for twelve years, by as many tyrants, as it contained Frenchmen; no redress could be obtained, nor hope left of future indulgence.

Their example was followed by the whole island; not a French person was left living. No pardon could be expected from Charles. The insurgents, therefore, offered the crown to Peter I. Not many years afterwards, the emperor Charles VI. In , the Spaniards resumed their design with success. THE principal mountain is Aetna; a volcano, that appears at sea, when first discovered, as a prodigious chimney, or a very large rugged pillar.

The perpendicular height, to the the top, is between two and three miles; some have imagined it more, and some rather less. The whole mountain is divided into three distinct regions; the fertile, the woody, and the barren. Here they were more moderate; and, in many places, the corn is as yet green.

The fruit of this region is reckoned the finest in Sicily, particularly the figs. The fall of these stones, with the ashes, form the mountains mentioned. After the new mountain is formed, the lava generally bursts out, from its lower side, and braving every thing before it, is generally terminated by the sea.

At last, the lava, rising near the summit, bursts the sides of the crater, and runs down in an ocean of liquid fire. Aetna, being on a much larger scale, one crater is not enough to give its lava vent. We cannot pretend to follow Mr. Brydone, through all his description of this mountain. Those who wish for more information must have recourse to his tour through Sicily and Malta; but we will mention some of the most curious particularities. The country of Hybla, celebrated for its honey, was overwhelmed by an irruption; it was called Mel Passi; but, when overwhelmed, became barren, and was called Mal Passi.

In a second irruption, by a shower of ashes on it, it was again rendered fertile, and its name was then changed to Bel Passi; but, in the great volcanic irruption of , it was laid under an ocean of fire, and reduced to the utmost state of barrenness, and has since been called Mal Passi. The lava, however, in its course over this beautiful country, has left several little islands, or hillocks, uncovered; just enough to shew what it formerly was.

These make a singular appearance, in all the bloom of luxuriant vegetation, surrounded, and rendered almost inaccessible, by large fields of black and rugged lava, that issued from a mountain not more than three hundred feet high, first formed itself by an irruption of Aetna.

It then divided into two branches; and, surrounding this mountain, joined again on its south side, laying waste the whole country, between that and Catania; scaled the walls of that city, and poured its flaming torrent into the ocean. In its way, it is said to have destroyed the possessions of thirty thousand people, and reduced them to beggary; it formed several hills, where vallies were before, and filled up a large lake.

A vineyard, belonging to a convent of jesuits, lay directly in its way. It was carried, on the surface of the lava, to a considerable distance: though the greatest part was destroyed, yet some of it remains to this day.

There is a great wildness, ferocity, and credulity, in the inhabitants of this mountain; they conceive the crater of Aetna, to be the mouth of hell. Sicuro said, they are safe enough, and all his heretic subjects; and, if you are of that number, you need not be in such a hurry to get there; you will be sure of it at last. As soon as we entered these delightful forests, we seemed got into another world. The air, which was before sultry and hot, was now cool and refreshing, and every breeze was loaded with a thousand perfumes; the whole ground being covered with the richest aromatic plants.

Brydone, and his company, in the course of one night, got about half through, and reached, before sun-set, a large cave; where they lodged. It was surrounded with stately and majestic oaks; they kindled a fire, and made comfortable beds of the dried leaves. The thermometer, which was at 71, at Nicolesi, now fell below The barometer stood at Not a great way from this cavern, are two of the most beautiful mountains that spring from Aetna. I mounted a mule, and rode to the top of one of them, a little before sun-set.

The prospect of Sicily, with the surrounding sea, and its islands, was wonderfully noble. The mercury here fell to We were amazed at the distinctness of vision, not recollecting that we had now passed through ten or twelve thousand feet of gross vapour, that blunts and confuses every ray, before it reaches the surface of the earth. In about an hour's climbing, we reached a place where there was no snow; and where a warm, and comfortable vapour issued from the mountain, which induced us to halt.

The mercury here was at The thermometer three degrees below the freezing point; and, before we left the summit of Aetna, it fell two degrees more, to The whole atmosphere, by degrees, kindle up, and shew, dimly and faintly, the boundless prospect round. The body of the sun is seen rising from the ocean; immense tracks, both of sea and land, intervening.

The islands of Lipari, Panari, Alicudi, Strombolo and Volcano, with their smoaking summits, appear under your feet; and you look down on the whole of Sicily as on a map, and can trace every river, through all its windings, from its source to its mouth. Could the eye see so far, the distance of two thousand miles would be discoverable, from the top of Aetna. Massa, a Sicilian writer, says, that the African coast, as well as that of Naples, with many of its islands, have been seen from the top of Aetna.

The circumference of the great circle of Aetna, that is, of the woody part that surrounds it, is not less than seventy or eighty miles; and the circumference of the mountain at bottom, according to Recupero, is an hundred and eighty-three miles. It goes shelving down on each side, and forms a regular hollow, like a vast amphitheatre. From many places, of this space, issue volumes of sulphureous smoke; and, immediately on clearing the crater, rolls down the mountain side like a torrent; till reaching that part of the atmosphere, of equal gravity with itself, it shoots off horizontally, and forms a large track in the air, according to the direction of the wind.

We did not attempt to go down into the crater; in the centre of which is the great mouth of the volcano. We looked down, and beheld it with awe and horror, and were not surprised, it had been considered as the place of the damned. We left the summit of the mountain at six in the morning, and it was eight at night before we reached Catania. It stands single, on a gentle rising; the ground round it, an open pasture. Its height has been diminished, by cutting the tops of its branches, to encrease its bearing.

It appears to be a group of trees; but is, in fact, an old trunk split down to the surface of the earth, but united in one body at a very small depth below. Its circumference, one inch from the ground, is one hundred and ninety-six English feet. From this trunk rise five divisions; each of which sends forth enormous branches. It was taken by the Spaniards in Messina being the first city we approach, in our way from Calabria, we will speak of Messina first. This city is reckoned about twelve miles from Reggio, on the coast of Calabria.

I say ran, for this beautiful pile of buildings was thrown down in the earthquake of , but is to be rebuilt. Messina has been declared a free port since The inner part of Messina is dirty, says Swinburne, though it contains a great number of churches, and large substantial dwellings. He was there in Swinburne, about the same time. The population, says De Non, formerly corresponded with the appearance of the city; but the plague of or , reduced it from one hundred thousand souls, to thirty thousand.

Messina could never recover this loss; and, of course, the remote parts of the city are deserted. In the treasury of the church is preserved, the Palladium of Messina. This is a letter from the Virgin Mary to its citizens, in latin the purport of which is, "An acknowledgment from her, that her son is the son of God; in his nature, both God and man; and that, after his resurrection, he ascended into heaven; and that Paul was an apostle, chosen to preach the way of truth; dated in the year of Christ, forty-two.

Their excellencies, says Swinburne, were graciously received by her; and brought back a letter, written by her own hand, in the Hebrew tongue, which St. Paul translated into Greek. These vessels, when sailing out of the harbour, make a very picturesque appearance; their oars rowing all together, and with the greatest regularity.

There are nine or ten men to each oar. These galley-slaves are chained to their oars, and sleep every night on the bare benches, without any thing to throw over them. On the 20th of May is celebrated a great festival here, in honour of St. The Saint is carried in procession, with vast ceremony, to the top of a hill, without the city; and receives there the homage of the people with becoming dignity.

After this, he is lodged again in his chapel, and the people dance and make merry till sun-set. The view, from the top of this, is beautiful beyond description. The lark-spur, Venus' look-glass, hawks-weed, and very fine lupins, grow wild over all the mountains round Messina; also a variety of flowering shrubs. There are many fine shady walks on all sides of Messina. Hire of lodging is next to nothing. It carries on a brisk trade, and is said to contain upwards of twenty thousand inhabitants.

This city suffered much in the earthquakes of and Though, apparently a small city, viewed from without, it is a large, fine, place; six miles in circumference. These streets are well paved, and have a broad pavement for foot passengers; fine buildings, and well lighted at night.

The central place, where the great streets cross each other, forming a fine octagon, is called Piazza Villena; each side of which exhibits a re-union of the three orders of architecture, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian; three statues and a fountain.

The lesser streets run parallel to these great ones. The places, the statues, the obelisks, the fountains, are not the most remarkable objects here. Here are about seven hospitals, and a general asylum for the poor. It is bounded, on one side, by the city-wall; and, on the other, by the sea; from whence there is always an agreeable breeze.

At that time, the walk is crouded with carriages, and people on foot; and, the better to favour pleasure and intrigue, there is an order, that no person shall carry a light with him. The concert ends about two in the morning; when, for the most part, every husband goes home to his own wife. They seek for and find each other; supper parties are formed, and carried snugly into execution; and upon the spot, at taverns, built along the walls of the rampart.

Thus do the inhabitants of Palermo vary the order of nature, and preserve themselves from feeling, and almost from recollecting the heat of their climate. In summer, their carriages are more elegant. There are a variety of conversaziones every night. At these meetings, the company merely converse; few play at cards, and these not long.

At this assembly there are a number of apartments, lighted with wax-lights, and kept exceeding cool and agreeable. Brydone went to one of these, that of princess Palerno, the evening she was brought to bed. The princess sat up in her bed, in an elegant undress, with a number of her friends about her; she talked as usual, and seemed perfectly well.

In consequence of this, Swinburne, who followed Brydone, says, he could not obtain access into any family. The Sicilian ladies, says Brydone, marry at thirteen, or fourteen; and are, sometimes, grandmothers before thirty. The princess assured me, she never enjoyed more perfect health than when in childbed; that, during her pregnancy, she was often indisposed; but that, immediately on delivery, she was cured of all complaints, and was capable of enjoying the company of her friends, even more than at any other time.

Their ease, in childbirth, is owing to the climate, which relaxes the frame. Among the cold Alps, half their women die in labour; and those who can afford it, often go dawn to the low countries, some weeks before they lie-in, and find their deliveries much easier.

Palermo is walled round, almost in a circular form, and the principal streets are so decorated with statues, fountains, and buildings, as to present the idea of a royal city. Most of the other streets are narrow and crooked; and, being wretchedly paved, are buried in dirt during the winter. The city is well lighted, with reverberating lamps; and, in wet weather, moveable wooden bridges are provided for crossing the kennels, which then become rapid torrents.

The cathedral was built in , and is in a very ruinous condition. It is a Gothic edifice, but heavy, and void of all the chaste proportions of the Grecian art. In several, the walls within are lined with red, or yellow marble; upon which, from the cieling to the floor, are glued basso relievo figures of angels, busts, and flowers in white marble.

The halls are of noble size, the courts of justice are held on a ground floor, and batteries of cannon defend the approach. The men are rather a comely race; but the ladies are little favoured by nature. In the streets women hide their heads, in black veils; a very ancient mode of dress in this island, and very lately introduced at Naples, and there become fashionable.

The viceroy, like the viceroy of Ireland, affects in every thing the pageantry of royalty. When he goes to church, he receives the tribute of a cloud of incense; and he, alone, with great solemnity, puts on his hat. On the 21st of December, he makes an annual visit to the jails, where he pardons as many prisoners as he pleases.

All law is that day dormant; and, although the magistrates have a right to remonstrate, he is under no obligation to follow their advice; but, the viceroys are very cautious not to abuse this privilege. If they pardon, it is on a report from the judges.

Notwithstanding his great authority, he is affable and familiar, and makes his house agreeable to every body. They are very temperate in their wines; but, having learnt from the English the method of hob-a-nobbing, and toasting ladies, they are more free in drinking than they used to be; and say, the English have made them drunkards.

In their ordinary living, they are very frugal and temperate. Brydone dined with the bishop of Agrigentum, the richest bishop in the kingdom; thirty were at table, and there were not less than a hundred dishes, dressed with the richest and most delicate sauces. The company were chiefly priests, but were very fond of punch, which they persuaded Mr.

One of the canons growing sick, with drinking too much of it, and vomiting, exclaimed, shaking his head and groaning, Ah signior Capitano, sapeva sempre che Pontio era un grande traditore. The Sicilians, continues Brydone, have always had the character of being very amorous, and surely not without reason. The whole nation are poets; even the peasants; and a man stands a poor chance of a mistress, that cannot celebrate her muses. Gallantry, here, is much on the same footing as in Italy.

The establishment of cicisbeos is also pretty general, though not quite so universal as on the continent. A breach, however, of the married vow, is not looked upon as a deadly sin. Husbands are content; and, like able generals, make up for the loss of one fortress, by taking another. Female licentiousness, however, has, by no means, come to such a height as in Italy. Husbands and wives that truly love one another: sights that are very rare on the continent.

Indeed the style that young ladies are brought up in here, seems to lay a more solid foundation for matrimonial happiness, than either in France or Italy. These trees never arrive at a great size, owing to their annual bleedings; but will yield manna for a hundred years. He has put the heads of men, to the bodies of every sort of animal; and the heads of every other animal, to the bodies of men; sometimes he makes a compound of five or six animals, that have no resemblance in nature.

There is not a horn in the world that he has not collected; and his pleasure is to see them flourishing on the same head. I have conversed with him, continues Brydone, and heard him talk speciously enough, on all occasions; and he gives bread to a number of statuaries and workmen, whom he rewards, in proportion as they can bring their imaginations to coincide with his own. On each side of this avenue is a parapet-wall, loaded with more horrible figures than were ever raised by Armida, and all the enchantment of Ariosto.

Busts of punchinellos and harlequins, with snakes twisted round them. Heads of dwarfs, with huge perriwigs; of asses and horses, with laced cravats, and ruffs, compose the lower range of this gallery; and, at intervals of an hundred yards, are clustered pillars, supporting curious groups of figures; some are musicians, others pigmies, opera-heroes, old women grinning; lions, and other beasts, seated at tables, with napkins under their chins, eating oysters; princesses with feathers and fur-belows, ostriches in hoops, and cats in boots.

The old ornaments, in the court that surrounds the palace, that were put up by his father, who was a man of taste and sense, have been all knocked to pieces, to make room for this new creation. Some of the apartments are spacious and magnificent, with high arched roofs; which, instead of plaister or stucco, are composed entirely of large mirrors, nicely joined together.

There are not less than forty of them. Most of the rooms are paved with fine marble tiles of different colours, that look like so many tomb-stones; some of these very richly wrought, with lapis lazuli, porphyry, and other valuable stones. The windows are composed of a variety of glass, of every colour, mixed without order or regularity.

His bed-chamber and dressing-room are like two apartments of Noah 's ark; there is scarce a beast, however vile, that he has not placed there; birds, pigs, serpents, lizards, scorpions, all cut in marble, in their respective colours. There are a good many busts too, not less singularly imagined.

For some minutes we can laugh at these follies, says Brydone; but indignation and contempt, soon get the better of your mirth, and the laugh is turned into a sneer. The wigs of men, and head-dresses of the ladies, are of white marble; so are their shirts, with long flowing ruffles of alabaster. These fooleries, says De Non, must create in us a contempt for the owner; who is, otherwise, a very amiable man. The prince of P. His house, at Palermo, is a good deal in the same stile; his carriages are covered with plates of brass, and some of them musket-proof.

Several living monsters have been brought forth in the neighbourhood. In the midst of this extravagance of the prince, says Swinburne, his family has often wanted clothes and victuals. Having run himself out, his relations have taken upon them the administration of his estate, and he has left the place. Since he has been debarred the pleasure of raising devils, he has attached himself to saints, and spends his time in following processions, and visiting churches.

It is a tall rock, without a tree or a shrub, except near the top. Here was her grotto, and here she died, and remained unknown till in the year The city was freed from the plague. A rich altar covers the marble effigy of the saint, represented lying at full length. It is covered with a silver vest, the gift of the King of Spain. This attention of theirs, not to offend weak minds, shews a good heart and understanding.

A man can have no good principles, who makes a parade of his contempt for things held sacred; it is an open insult to the judgment of the public. Brydone was present at the festival of St. The corso is one of the great streets that crosses the city; it is a mile long, and extends to the maund, or public walk, which continues its length another mile, along the sea-side. The surface of the street is concave; and, of course, we can see easily from end to end.

This is done by the erection of pyramids and arches. They are erected on each side the streets, betwixt the front path and the pavement, and run in two right lines, exactly parallel from one end to the other; the four gates, at the end of these cross streets, are also illuminated; so that, from the square in the centre of the city, the whole of this illumination can be seen at once.

The number of pyramids, and arches, exceed two thousand. The roof is hung with innumerable lustres filled with candles; the saints are dressed out in all their glory, and the fairy queen, herself, was never finer than St. On the evening of the twelfth of July, at five o'clock, the festival begins. A triumphal car is drawn, from the middle of the marino, through the centre of the city to its furthest gate; preceded by a troop of horse, with trumpets and kettle-drums, and all the city-officers in their gala uniforms.

The car is an enormous machine, on wheels, seventy feet long, thirty wide, and more than eighty high; and, as it passed along, overtopped the loftiest houses of Palermo. The form of its under part is like that of the Roman gallies, but smaller as it advances in height. The front assumes an oval shape, like an amphitheatre, with seats placed in the stile of a theatre. The whole machine is dressed out with orange-trees, flower-pots, and trees of artificial coral.

The car stopped every fifty or sixty yards; when the orchestra performed a piece of music; with songs, in honour of the saint. It appeared a moving castle, and completely filled the great street, from side to side. This vast fabric was drawn by fifty-six huge mules, two a-breast, curiously caparisoned, and mounted by twenty-eight postilions, dressed in gold and silver stuffs, with great plumes of ostrich feathers in their hats. Every window, and balcony, both sides of the street, were full of well dressed people; and the car was followed by many thousands of the lower sort.

The triumph was finished in about three hours, and was succeeded by the beautiful illumination of the marino. See the Plate. The whole chain of this illumination was about a mile in length, and nothing can be conceived more splendid; no break, or imperfection any where, nor a single lamp extinguished: so still was the night.

All the xebecs, gallies, galliots, and other shipping, were ranged round this palace, and formed a kind of amphitheatre in the sea, enclosing it in the centre. During this exhibition, coffee, ices, sweetmeats, and a variety of excellent wines, were handed round in the pavilion, in the centre of the marino.

The firework being finished, the viceroy went out to sea in a galley, richly illuminated. It was rowed by seventy-two oars; and, he says, made one of the most beautiful objects imaginable; flying with vast velocity over the waters, then as smooth and as clear as glass; which shone round it like a flame, and reflected its splendor on all sides.

The oars beat time to the French-horns, clarinets, and trumpets, of which there was a numerous band in the prow. The day's entertainment was concluded by the corso; which began exactly at midnight, and lasted two hours. They in their greatest gala; and, as these coaches open in the middle, and let down on each side, the beauty of the ladies, the richness of their dress, and brilliance of their jewels, were displayed in the most advantageous manner.

The beautiful train moved slowly, round and round, for two hours. The next day, I thought there would be a falling off. The entertainments of the thirteenth began by horse-races. Of these there were three; six horses started each time, mounted by boys, about twelve years old, without either saddle or bridle; only a small piece of cord, by way of bit in the horse's mouth, which it seems is sufficient to stop them.

The great street was the course; and for this purpose it was covered with earth, five or six inches deep. The firing of a gun was the signal for starting; the horses understood this, for they all sat off at once, full speed, from one gate; and continued at their utmost stretch to the other; exactly a mile, and ran it in a minute and thirty-five seconds; the horses scarce fourteen hands high; barbs, or a mixed breed, between a Sicilian and a barb.

They kept their seat by leaning forward, and laying fast hold of the mane. The people then opened, and fell back on each side, by a regular uniform motion, from one end of the street to the other. The gardens were finely illuminated, like our Vauxhall on an extra day; an orchestra was erected at each end, and two very good bands of music played. The entertainment was splendid.

The corso was illuminated, as the night before, and the same parading of carriages took place. The square, in the centre, where the streets cross each other, was richly ornamented with tapestry, statues, and artificial flowers; and, as the buildings which form its four sides are uniform, and of fine architecture, and at the same time highly illuminated, it had a wonderful effect.

There were four orchestras erected in it; and the fine bands of music were greater, than it could be supposed Palermo could furnish. The nobles assembled in the viceroy's palace; and the entertainment, was still more magnificent, than either of the former evenings. The great fire-works, opposite the front of the palace, began at ten o'clock, and ended at midnight; after this, the parading in the corso, as before, till two. On the fifteenth, three races, six horses each, as before.

The great assembly of the nobility was at the justice Monarchias, an officer of high rank and dignity. Here, also, was a sumptuous entertainment, and a concert. At eleven at night, the viceroy, and the whole company, walked to visit the square and the great church; a prodigious train; for, though the city was all a lamp of light, the servants of the viceroy and nobles, preceded with flambeaus.

As soon as the viceroy entered the square, the five orchestras played, and continued playing till he left it. The crowd round the church was very great, but the attendants soon cleared the way; and, entering at the great gate, we beheld the most splendid scene in the world. The whole church appeared a flame of light, which reflected from ten thousand bright and shining surfaces, of different colours, and different angles, produced an effect, which no description of enchantment can equal.

I never could have supposed, says Brydone, that human art could have devised any thing so splendid. Apple pie. Bacon Sandwich. Beef Bourguignon. Bento Lunch Box. Carrot Cake. Chicken dishes. Chicken Kiev. Chicken Wings. Chilli Chicken. Chocolate mousse. Chow Mein. Club Sandwich. Crab Cake. Creme Brulee. Croque Madame.

Dim Sum. Doner Kebab. Eggs Benedict. Filet Mignon. Fish Soup. Foie gras. French Fries. Fried rice. Frog Legs. Frozen Yogurt. Garlic Prawns. Green Curry. Hot Dog. Ice Cream. Kung Pao Chicken. Lamb chops. Mandarin Duck. Mixed Kebabs. Pad Thai. Peking Duck. Prawn Salad. Red Curry. Roast Beef. Roast Chicken. Seafood Platters. Sirloin Steak.

Steak Sandwich. Steak Tartare. Suckling Pig. Surf And Turf. T-Bone Steak. Tikka Masala. Tuna Sandwich. Veggie Burger. Wild boar. Yellow Curry. Vegetarian Friendly. Vegan Options. Gluten Free Options. Families with children. Large groups. Bar scene. Business meetings. Hidden Gems. Local cuisine. Scenic view. Special occasions. Sort by: Highest Rating. You are zoomed out too far to see location pins. Please zoom back in.

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Business nationalism is an economic nationalist ideology held by a sector of the political right in the United States. Networking is a socioeconomic business activity by which businesspeople and entrepreneurs meet to form business relationships and to recognize, create, or act upon business opportunities, share information and seek potential partners for ventures. The term business oligarch is almost a synonym of the term business magnate, borrowed by the English-speaking and western media from post-Soviet parlance to label those businessmen who quickly acquired huge wealth in post-Soviet states mostly Russia and Ukraine during the privatization in Russia and in other post-Soviet states in the s.

Charles Smith "C. Christopher Tagbo Onyekwelu born , date of death unknown was a Nigerian businessman who played a pioneering role in developing an indigenous recording industry in the country. Cadwallader Colden Washburn April 22, May 14, was an American businessman, politician, and soldier who founded a mill that later became General Mills. Cale Case born June 2, is an economist, businessman, and politician from Lander in Fremont County in central Wyoming. Calisto Tanzi born November 17, in Collecchio is an Italian businessman notorious for embezzling an estimated eight-hundred million euros from Italian company Parmalat, founded by him, resulting in a great loss for the company.

Calixto R. Calvin Pardee July 7, — March 18, was a businessman from Pennsylvania. Cannabis in British Columbia BC relates to a number of legislative, legal, and cultural events surrounding use and cultivation of cannabis in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Carl and Jack Cole, born Carl Collofsky and Isadore Collofsky, were American brothers who created the successful bookstore chain Coles as well as the world-famous publication Coles Notes.

Carl Eugene Moses July 16, — April 30, was an American businessman from Unalaska, Alaska who served in the Alaska House of Representatives from to as both a Republican and Democrat, and was elected again to the House in running on the Alaskan Independence Party ticket, later switched back to the Democrats, and served until Carl Johan Freer born 9 May is a Swedish businessman and technology entrepreneur primarily known for founding the American company Tiger Telematics, which created the handheld game console Gizmondo.

Carl Gerlinger, Sr. Carl Newton Gunter Jr. Carl Michael "Mike" Smith born is an American businessman, energy expert, and politician from Oklahoma. Carl Pasquale Paladino born August 24, is an American businessman and political activist. Carl W. Renstrom — was an Omaha, Nebraska businessman and multi-millionaire who made his fortune selling hair curlers and other hair accessories through his company, Tip-Top Products.

Carmen Vidal 28 June - 10 February was a Spanish cosmetologist and business person. Carol Galley is a businesswoman who, as a Director of Mercury Asset Management, was regarded as the most powerful woman in the City in the s. Carole Kariuki, is a businesswoman and business executive in Kenya, who serves as the chief executive officer of KEPSA , an industry group that represents and lobbies on behalf of Kenyan businesses and industries. Carolyn Kepcher born January 30, is an American businesswoman, perhaps best known for her regular appearances on the NBC television program The Apprentice.

Carolyne Roehm born Carolyne Jane Smith on May 7, is an American author, businesswoman, socialite, and former fashion designer. Casey Owen Neistat born March 25, is an American YouTube personality, filmmaker, vlogger, and co-founder of defunct multimedia company Beme. Refiloe Maele Phoolo born 16 December , professionally known as Cassper Nyovest, is a South African recording artist and record producer. Caterina Fake born 13 June is an American entrepreneur and businesswoman. Catherine Igathe, is a Kenyan businesswoman and business executive, who works as the managing director and chief executive officer of AIG Kenya Insurance Company Limited.

Augustus Cecil Elphinstone — was an Australian businessman and politician. Cecil Kay Carter, Jr. Kay Carter, or C. Cecil Pope Staton, Jr. Cecilia Barbara Atim Ogwal, commonly known as Cecilia Ogwal, is a Ugandan politician, businesswoman and management consultant. Celebrity Overhaul was a reality television and infotainment show on Australia's Nine Network in which celebrities undergo a rigorous exercise and diet regime aimed at improving their fitness, health and general lifestyle, with the particular goal of Weight Loss.

Celso L. Lobregat, Jr. Centenary College of Louisiana is a private, four-year arts and sciences college located in Shreveport, Louisiana. The Centre for Life is a science village in Newcastle upon Tyne where scientists, clinicians, educationalists and business people work to promote the advancement of the life sciences.

Chad Tyler Brownstein born February 12, is an American businessman, entrepreneur, industrialist and amateur golfer based in Los Angeles, California. A chamber of commerce or board of trade is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Chang Hsiao-yen born 11 August is a Taiwanese television host and actress. Born in Shanghai, China, Chang relocated to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War where she started her acting career at the age of five as a child actress in cinema.

In an annual poll conducted by Reader's Digest in , Chang was voted the most trusted Taiwanese variety show host. Charilaos G. Representative from California. Charles "Chuck" J. Representative from the sixth district of Maryland, serving one term from — Charles Broadwick born John Murray was an American pioneering parachutist and inventor.

Charles Carter Comstock March 5, — February 20, was a businessman and politician from the U. August 12, ? Charles E. Rushmore December 2, — October 31, was an American businessman and attorney for whom Mount Rushmore is named.

Marshal, Chief of Police, businessman, and pioneer of the Old West. Sir Charles Frederick Fraser b. Charles Henry Stearns February 7, — October 12, was a businessman and politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of Vermont for one term. Charles Hillyer Brand April 20, — May 17, was an American politician, businessman, jurist and lawyer. Charles L. Charles Langlois — was a French actor who spent a large part of his career in Sweden, where he was to play an important part in Swedish theatre history as the originator of the first national theatre in Sweden, and its first director.

Charles Lewis Jr. June 23, — March 11, was an American businessman, promoter and entertainer. Charles M. Poston Sr. Charles Pratt October 2, — May 4, was an American businessman and philanthropist. Charles T. Hinde July 12, — March 10, was an American industrialist, tycoon, riverboat captain, businessman, and entrepreneur. Charles Tudor Williams April 13, — January 7, was an American businessman, author, composer, linguist, and educator.

Charles Tufts July 16, — December 24, was an American businessperson and philanthropist. Charles Theodore Von der Ahe August 29, — June 4, was an American businessman, best known as an early innovator in the grocery business in Southern California, and founder of Vons supermarket chain in Southern California along with his two sons, Wilfred and Theodore.

Charles Waterhouse Goodyear October 15, - April 16, was an American lawyer, businessman, lumberman, and member of the prominent Goodyear family of New York. Charlene "Charlie" Fern born in is an American speechwriter, business owner, public speaker and journalist who served as First Lady Laura Bush's speechwriter for six years, first in the Texas Governor's Office, then at the White House, through October Charles W.

Cherry Logan Emerson, Jr. Charles John "Chick" Lang Sr. Charles Thomas "Chick" Parsons, Jr. Chika 'Nancy' Ike was born on November 8, is a Nigerian actress, television personality, producer, business woman, philanthropist and former model.

Christopher T. Bayley served as the King County Prosecuting Attorney from to Chris Cutler born 4 January is an English percussionist, composer, lyricist and music theorist. Christopher "Chris" Deering born January 15, is an American businessman and marketer best known for his role as president of Sony Computer Entertainment Europe.

Christopher James Evans born 1 April is an English presenter, businessman, and producer for radio and television. Chris Gerlach born November 17, is a Minnesota politician and former member of the Minnesota Senate representing District 37, which included portions of the cities of Apple Valley, Burnsville and Rosemount in Dakota County, which is located in the southeastern Twin Cities metropolitan area. Christopher John Kirubi is a Kenyan businessman, entrepreneur, industrialist and philanthropist.

Chris Madden born June 1, is an American interior designer, television host, author, and businesswoman. Chris Rivett born 25 April is the chairman of Olympic Catuvellauni, a multi-discipline sporting club he formed in Christi Leigh Craddick born July 1, is one of three members of the Texas Railroad Commission, the elected regulatory body over oil, natural gas, utilities, and surface mining first established in Christian Mark Cecil Purslow born December 14, is a British businessman, co-founder of private equity firm MidOcean Partners and is the former managing director of Liverpool Football Club and the director and head of global commercial activities at Chelsea Football Club.

Christine Goutiere Weston — was an India-born American fiction writer. Triple Crown champion Secretariat. Christopher Histed born is a British businessman and entrepreneur with a career in media, the internet and consultancy. Christopher J. Wiernicki born Sept.

Christopher Mattheisen born is an American businessman, economist, best known as the CEO of Hungarian telecommunications company Magyar Telekom from to Christopher "Chris" Mitchum born October 16, is an American film actor, screenwriter, and businessman. Christopher Tsui born in Hong Kong is a businessman and a Champion Thoroughbred racehorse owner.

Christy Peter Mihos was an American politician and businessman from Massachusetts. CK Infrastructure Holdings or CKI, is the largest publicly listed infrastructure company in Hong Kong with diversified investments in energy infrastructure, transportation Infrastructure, water Infrastructure and infrastructure related business, parented by CK Hutchison Holdings, businessman Li Ka Shing's flagship company.

Clara Driscoll April 2, — July 17, , was a Texas-born businesswoman, philanthropist, and historic preservationist who provided the money to preserve the Alamo Mission in San Antonio. Clare Akamanzi is a Rwandan lawyer, public administrator, businesswoman and politician, who has served as the executive director and chief executive officer of the Rwanda Development Board, since 4 February Representative from Virginia. Clarence L. Clark Spencer born April 6, is an American film producer, businessman and studio executive, best known for his work at Walt Disney Animation Studios.

Claud Morris 20 January — 21 May was a British newspaper owner who sought to make peace between Arabs and Israelis. Claude Ruiz Picasso born 15 May is a photographer, cinematographer, movie director, visual artist, graphic designer, and businessman born, in Boulogne-Billancourt next to Paris in France.

Cleaning For A Reason is a nonprofit organization that provides free house cleaning for cancer patients. Clendenin James Ryan, Jr. Clementina Mulenga born June 14, , professionally known as Cleo or Cleo Ice Queen is a Zambian born hip hop recording artist, renowned television and radio presenter. International Clients' Day is an unofficial holiday when companies' owners and managers thank their clients.

Sir Clive Cowdery born 26 May is an English businessman who made a personal fortune in the insurance industry and has since donated large amounts to charity. Clive Frederick Palmer born 26 March is an Australian businessman and former politician. Cobra is a American action film directed by George P. Cosmatos, and written by Sylvester Stallone, who also starred in the title role. Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman, 19 May — 16 December was an influential English design engineer, inventor, and builder in the automotive industry, and founder of Lotus Cars.

Collins Foods Limited is a publicly-listed Australian company focused in restaurant operations. Colorado School of Mines, also referred to as "Mines", is a public teaching and research university in Golden, Colorado, devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources. The Confederate Monument in Portsmouth, Virginia, was built between and Conrad Leslie born R.

Conrad Leslie Jr. Constantino Barza was a Brazilian photographer that operated between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Cornelius Vanderbilt II November 27, — September 12, was an American socialite, heir, businessman, and a member of the prominent United States Vanderbilt family.

The Edwin L. Cullompton is a town and civil parish in the district of Mid Devon and the county of Devon, England, locally known as Cully. Cultural schema theory holds that human beings employ classification to understand members of other cultures, and add new data to previously available categories.

Curators of Sweden is a social media campaign initiated by the government agency Swedish Institute and VisitSweden on Twitter. The United States Senate consists of members, two from each of the 50 states. Curtis J. Cyberpunk, mainly known by its second edition title Cyberpunk , is a cyberpunk role-playing game written by Mike Pondsmith and published by R. Talsorian Games in Cynthia Munwangari a fashion designer, fashionista and businesswoman in Burundi. Cyrtodactylus buchardi is a species of gecko recently described from Champasak Province, Laos.

Charles Enebeli born 23 October , better known by his stage name D'Prince, is a Nigerian Afro pop singer, songwriter. David Dudley Bloom September 20, — August 20, was an American businessman who made notable contributions to the consumer products industry as a conceptual inventor and marketing executive during the s and s, including proposing and designing the first conventional travel luggage built on wheels; marketing the first "magic milk bottle" for dolls; and designing and marketing a continuous-play tape recorder.

Damien Fahrenfort also known as "Dooma" born November 10, is a South African business person, professional surfer, web-content creator, producer and journalist born in Cape Town, South Africa. House of Representatives from Virginia, serving from until his death from a heart attack in Charlottesville in Daniel A. Dana Albert "D. Daniel Hadad born November 28, is an Argentine businessman involved in telecommunications and media.

Daniel Louis "Dan" Doctoroff born July 11, is an American businessman and former government official. Daniel Philip Levy born 8 February is a British businessman and the current chairman of Premier League football side Tottenham Hotspur and has been since Daniel Phillips Upham more commonly known as D. Upham; December 30, — November 18, was an American politician, businessman, plantation owner, and Arkansas State Militia commander following the U.

Civil War. Daniel Keith "Danny" Forster born September 19, is an American designer, television host, film and television producer, director, professor, and speaker. Danny Lendich is a business owner and franchise operator, having opened the first Wendy's in New Zealand in the s. Daniel Mark Porush born February is an American businessman and former stock broker who ran a "pump and dump" stock fraud scheme in the s. He is also a member of the board of directors of BET. Darius Van Arman is an American businessman, co-founder, and co-owner of Secretly Group, an independent label group that is based in Indiana.

Power and Associates. David Kerman born August 24, , better known as Dave Kerman, is a United States experimental rock drummer and composer, best known as the founder and member of the Los Angeles avant-rock group 5uu's. David Abraham Blech born November 25, is an American businessman, investor, and venture capitalist.

David K. Crowe born 7 June is an American businessman and software engineer. David David October 14, — November 30, was a Canadian fur trader, businessman, and militia officer. David "Dave" F. David Arthur Duffield born is an American businessman in the software industry. David Eccles May 12, — December 6, was an American businessman and industrialist who founded many businesses throughout the western United States and became Utah's first multimillionaire.

David F. Alfonso is a self-made American entrepreneur, investor, producer and businessman. David Fleischaker born is an American businessman and lawyer who served as the Oklahoma Secretary of Energy under Governor of Oklahoma Brad Henry from to David G. Mugar is an Armenian-American businessman and philanthropist from Belmont, Massachusetts. David Gordon Wallace is an American businessman, politician, and author from the state of Texas. He is the owner and chief executive officer of the Kansas City Royals.

David Green born November 13, is an American businessman and the founder of Hobby Lobby, a chain of arts and crafts stores. David Hill born 20 June is an English-born Australian business leader and author. David M. Kelley born February 10, is an American businessman, entrepreneur, designer, engineer, and teacher. David Mirvish, born August 29, is a Canadian art collector, art dealer, theatre producer, real estate developer and son of the late Toronto discount department store owner "Honest" Ed Mirvish and artist Anne Lazar Macklin.

David Richard Moores born 15 March is the former chairman — and now honorary life president of Liverpool F. David Morris Kern — May 3, was an American pharmacist and businessman. David Okerlund Leavitt born October 30, is a criminal justice attorney and businessman from Utah. David Ernest Oldfield born 25 June is a former Australian politician who co-founded and was deputy leader of the Pauline Hanson's One Nation party.

David Portnoy born March 22, , nicknamed "El Presidente" and "El Pres", is an American businessman, blogger, podcast host, and founder of the satirical sports and pop culture blog Barstool Sports. David R. Gamperl born December 24, is an American businessman from the Chicago area.

David Alan Stockman born November 10, is an American politician and former businessman who served as a Republican U. Representative from the state of Michigan — and as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget — under President Ronald Reagan.

David Sullivan born 5 February is a Welsh businessman and former pornographer. David T. David Compton Tallichet Jr. December 20, - October 31, was a United States businessman, noted as the father of the themed restaurant although his first themed restaurant was preceded by several well known restaurants with the same theme.

David W. David Whissell, B. Dayanand Shetty born 11 December , also known as Daya Shetty, is an Indian model, film and television actor. A list of notable characters from the NBC soap opera Days of Our Lives that significantly impacted storylines and debuted between January 1, , and the end of A list of notable characters from the NBC soap opera Days of Our Lives that significantly impacted storylines and debuted between January 1, , onward.

Clarence "Dean" Alford born July 17, is an American politician and businessman, a member of the Republican Party, a conservative, and a former member of the General Assembly in the U. Dean Hoyle born 16 April is the founder and previous owner of Card Factory and the current chairman and owner of Premier League side Huddersfield Town. Dean T. Prosser, Jr. May 10, - September 24, , was a Republican member of the Wyoming House of Representatives from —, who authored major environmental legislation to preserve the Wyoming landscape.

Debbi Fields born September 18, is the founder and spokesperson of Mrs. Fields Bakeries. Deborah Sonia Meaden born 11 February is an English businesswoman who ran a multimillion-pound family holiday business caravan park , before completing a management buyout, but is now best known for her appearances on the BBC Two business programme Dragons' Den.

Declan Gerald Curry born 5 September is a Northern Irish freelance journalist, presenter and businessman, best known as the former business correspondent for BBC Breakfast. Delano Eugene Lewis born November 12, is an American attorney, businessman and diplomat. Delon Dotson is a technologist and businessman who has worked in several businesses, including Netscape Communications and MP3.

Deming Chen, also widely known as M I N G born November 18, is an American businesswoman, creative executive, author, long distance runner and former television host. Denise Ilitch born November is a Detroit-area businessperson, lawyer, and member of the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan. Deniz Orhun born, in Ankara, lives in Istanbul is a chef, media personality and businesswoman.

Dennis Michael Lynch born August 28, is an American businessman, documentary film maker, and news personality. Not to be confused with Dennis Rodman Dennis Roldan born Mitchell Yap Gumabao on 8 December is a Filipino former actor, basketball player, businessman, and congressman. Derek Cook 16 June — 1 May was a British auto racing driver and businessman. Derek Sivers born September 22, is an American entrepreneur best known for being the founder and former president of CD Baby, an online CD store for independent musicians.

Derek M. Desmond Mullen born August 1, is an American producer, director, actor, and writer. The Detroit, Mackinac and Marquette Railroad was a land grant railroad that was built and operated briefly in the Upper Peninsula of the U. Diane Grisham Winston born August 13, is a businesswoman from Covington, Louisiana, who served as a Republican member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from until term-limited in Richard Attilio Greco born September 14, is a politician, businessman, and civic activist from Tampa, Florida.

Richard Harold Smith born 18 March is an Australian entrepreneur, businessman, record-breaking aviator, philanthropist, and political activist. Diego Dreyfus born December 23, in Mexico, D. Martin C. Dimitrios P.

Dina Wein Reis born is an American businesswoman, and one of the producers of the Broadway show. James Harrison Wilson Thompson born 21 March was an American businessman who helped revitalise the Thai silk industry in the s and s. Dixie Carter-Salinas born October 6, , known professionally as Dixie Carter, is an American businesswoman and former promoter.

Milton Ernest "Doc" Noss was an American businessman and gold prospector, who claimed to have found a treasure trove of gold bullion inside Victorio Peak, New Mexico in DocNetwork is an electronic health record system for camps, child care, and schools. Doctor Polaris is an alias used by two fictional characters, both supervillains appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics.

Dom Marcell born Dominique M. Collins in Puerto Rico , is an American singer-songwriter and businessman. Domenico 'Dominic' Canale born in , also known as D. Canale, was an Italian-American immigrant who founded the D. Donald Wayne Williamson, usually known as Don Williamson born October 5, , is an American businessman and politician in Shreveport, the seat of Caddo Parish and the largest city in north Louisiana.

Donald Charles Alfred Crowhurst — was a British businessman and amateur sailor who died while competing in the ''Sunday Times'' Golden Globe Race, a single-handed, round-the-world yacht race. Donald F. Forrestal on atomic energy matters, and Chairman of the U. Munitions Board. Donald W. Donald Eugene Petersen born September 4, is an American businessman who was employed by the Ford Motor Company for 40 years, most notably as its Chief Executive Officer from to Donald Worthington Reynolds September 23, — April 2, was an American businessman and philanthropist.

Donald Weder born of Highland, Illinois is an American inventor and businessman. Donna Burke born 12 December in Perth, Australia is an Australian singer, voice actress, and businesswoman. Doomlord was a comic strip and the shared title name of the central characters published in the British comic book ''Eagle'' during the s, from Issue 1 on March 27, , until Issue on 14 October Dorothy Schiff March 11, - August 30, was an owner and then publisher of the New York Post for nearly 40 years.

Dorr Eugene Felt March 18, — August 7, was an American inventor and industrialist who was known for having invented the Comptometer, an early computing device, and the Comptograph, the first printing adding machine. Douglas Robert Ford born November 20, is a Canadian businessman and politician who is the 26th and current Premier of Ontario since June 29, following the Ontario general election and Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario since March 10, Douglas "Doug" B.

Moylan born October 19, is a Guamanian politician and attorney under the Law Office. Dov Seidman born May 13, is an American author, attorney, columnist and businessman. William Dudley Lastrapes, Jr. Modupeola "Dupsy" Abiola born March is a British non-practising barrister, entrepreneur and businesswoman. The Dutch Wikipedia is the Dutch-language edition of the free online encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Dwain Lingenfelter born February 27, is a businessman, farmer, politician and former Leader of the Saskatchewan New Democratic Party.

Dzifa Aku Ativor born 22 February is a Ghanaian politician and businesswoman. Robert Kinney April 12, — May 2, was an American businessman, fishery entrepreneur, and philanthropist. Earl B. Supreme Court in Hansberry v. Earl E. Bakken born January 10, in Hennepin County, Minnesota is an American engineer, businessman and philanthropist of Dutch and Norwegian American ancestry.

Ludwell Ebersole "Eb" Gaines Jr. April 21, — March 15, was an American businessman and diplomat. Edward P. Roski Jr. Edwin Butita, popularly known by his stage name Eddie Butita born 16 November , is a Kenyan-born comedian, actor, script writer, theatre director, emcee, theatre producer, and businessman.

Edgar Batalla Aglipay born 13 September is a Filipino businessman and retired police officer with the rank of general. Edgar Jonas Kaufmann November 1, — April 15, was a prominent Jewish German-American businessman and philanthropist who owned and directed Kaufmann's Department Store, the most prominent one in 20th-century Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania.

Edith Aurelia Killgore Kirkpatrick November 14, — April 15, was a music educator from Baton Rouge who served on the Louisiana Board of Regents for Higher Education from to , the superboard which must approve education budgets presented to the state legislature. Edmond D. Edmund Hewavitarne — was a Ceylonese Sri Lankan businessman and reservist.

Edmund Tobin Asselin September 26, — March 24, was a Canadian politician, administrator and businessman. Edmund William Wells February 14, — July 4, was an American jurist, businessman, and politician. Eduardo "Danding" Murphy Cojuangco Jr. Eduardo Georgetti October 11, — , was an agriculturist, businessman, philanthropist, and politician.

Eduardo Torres Xol born February 19, is a Mexican-American actor, singer, television personality, designer, entertainer, social activist and businessman. Edvin Leonard Bergroth 26 December — 29 March was a Finnish engineer, businessman and vuorineuvos. Edward Ormus Sharrington Davenport born 11 July is a convicted English fraudster, socialite, and property developer. Edward Dean Adams 9 April — 20 May was an American businessman, banker, power broker and numismatist.

Edward Lewis Gaylord May 28, April 27, was an Oklahoma billionaire businessman, media mogul and philanthropist. Edward H. Francis Edward Kennon, Jr. Edward Murphy Jr. Colonel Edward Riley Bradley December 12, — August 15, was an American steel mill laborer, gold miner, businessman and philanthropist. Edward Roy Tinsley III born August 26, , is an attorney, rancher, and businessman with interests in oil, natural gas, and restaurants who has twice failed in Republican bids for the United States House of Representatives from the 2nd congressional district of his adopted state of New Mexico.

Edward Stobart 21 November — 31 March was a British haulage company owner who first became involved with his father's company aged 15 in , and subsequently expanded it into one of the UK's most well known multimodal logistics companies, Stobart Group. Edwin Cord is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Edwin Quayle "Ted" Cannon, Jr. Ekaterina Dmitrievna Rybolovleva born 4 June , Perm, Russia is a businesswoman, equestrian and socialite.

Elaine Didier born is the director of the Gerald R. An electrical contractor is a business person or firm that performs specialized construction work related to the design, installation, and maintenance of electrical systems. Elena Domenica Luisa Rubeo, O. Ellen Gustafson is an American businessperson, social entrepreneur and sustainable food system activist.

Ellen B. Spiegel, born in in New York City, New York , is an American politician who is a Democratic member of the Nevada Assembly, first elected November 4, representing District 21 in Henderson, and since November 6, representing District 20, which is split between Henderson and unincorporated Clark County.

Ellis Mark Zacharias, Sr. Elmer Beseler Harris born April 8, is an American businessman and political strategist. Elsie Carlisle 28 January — 5 September was a popular English female singer both before and during the British dance band era of the s and s, showcased in her nickname of Britain's "Radio Sweetheart Number One. Emil H. Emile Oscar Garcke — 14 November was a naturalised British electrical engineer, industrial, commercial and political entrepreneur managing director of the British Electric Traction Company BET , and early author on accounting.

Carlos Emiliano Salinas Occelli born is a venture capitalist and businessman. Emily M. Brewer born May 27, is an American small business owner and member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing the 64th District. Emily Gimmel born May 17, is an American journalist, entrepreneur, businesswoman, and television personality.

Chief Dr. Emmanuel Iwuanyanwu born September 4, is a Nigerian politician and renowned businessman, considered one of the richest men in Nigeria. Emmanuel Katongole is a Ugandan statistician, economist, businessman, entrepreneur, industrialist and philanthropist. Henrique S. Yateman c. Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.

Erasmus Darwin in uniform of The Green Howards. The Menin Gate. Erastus Wells December 2, — October 2, was a 19th-century politician and businessman from Missouri. Eric Tiyo Sekebuga Adriko is a Ugandan industrialist, mechanical engineer, businessman, gynecologist, academic and politician.

Eric Emerson Schmidt born April 27, is an American businessman and software engineer. Sir Eric Vansittart Bowater, F. Eric Wyckoff Harris, Sr. Ericus Gerhardus Verkade 20 November — 8 February was a Dutch businessman and the founder of the Verkade manufacturing company in Erik Ziengs born September 27, in Hoogersmilde is a Dutch politician and businessman. Egbert Erle Cocke Jr.

May 10, — April 23, was an American businessman who served as the National Commander of The American Legion from to Sir Ernest Thomas Harrison 11 May — 16 February , was an English businessman, best known as Chief Executive of Racal, and chairman of both Racal and the first chairman of its spun-out mobile division, Vodafone.

Army, and successful oilman. Euan Sutherland is a Scottish businessman who is the Chief Executive of SuperGroup plc which owns the Superdry chain of clothing shops. Eugen Scotoni was an influential Austrian-born Swiss businessman from the construction, real estate and film industries.

Eugene Collins Pulliam May 3, — June 23, was an American newspaper publisher and businessman who was the founder and longtime president of Central Newspapers Inc. Eugene Pechet September 22, — August 23, was a Canadian hotelier and banker.

The company did an extensive business in green and salt hides which were shipped to tanners in various parts of the country. He moved the family to Alexandria, Louisiana in His first real job was in an accounting position with Acadia Iron Works in Crowley, Louisiana where he was employed for two and a half years. Stafford Wholesale Grocer as an accountant for the Rapides grocery company. He filled the position of accountant and credit man for this company from until After his work at L.

Stafford, he spent a year and a half with the Louisiana Public Utilities Company. In Gulf Public Service Inc. In he took over the Brown Hide Company in partnership with L. Stafford and became the sole owner in Ezell Brown, born May 22, is an American businessman, entrepreneur, investor, philanthropist and Chairman of Education Online Services Corporation.

Frederick Morgan "Buzz" Taylor Jr. July 13, — October 29, was an American athlete and businessman. Farhad Ahmed Dockrat is a South African cleric and businessman who has recently been listed by the UN Security Council as a terror suspect along with his cousin Junaid Ismail Dockrat for alleged links with the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda.

Farhad Vladi is a German business man, philanthropist and international island consultant based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Female sex tourism is sex tourism by women who travel intending to engage in sexual activities with a sex worker. Ferris Aircraft, also known as Ferris Air, is an aerospace, defense, and later airline company featured in the DC Comics universe. John Filip Tysander born 25 January is a Swedish businessman and entrepreneur. Financial accounting or financial accountancy is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions pertaining to a business.

Fletch is a mystery novel by Gregory Mcdonald, the first in a series featuring the character Irwin Maurice Fletcher. Fletcher Roseberry Jones January 22, November 7, was an American businessman, computer pioneer and thoroughbred racehorse owner. Flintheart Glomgold is a fictional character in Disney comic books, created by Carl Barks in Florian Homm born 7 October is a German former businessman and investment banker.

Floyd E. Thompson December 25, — October 18, was a justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois and a criminal lawyer. Forza ItaliaThe name is not usually translated into English: forza is the second-person singular imperative of ''forzare'', in this case translating to "to compel" or "to press", and so means something like "Forward, Italy", "Come on, Italy" or "Go, Italy!

Fouad al-Zayat — 26 March was a Syrian businessman, investor and gambler. Fox Henderson, Sr. Frances Kazuko Hashimoto August 26, — November 4, was a Japanese-American businesswoman and community activist. Francesco Bellini, born November 20, born 20 november is an Italian-born research scientist, administrator, entrepreneur and Quebecer business man. Francis Adams Cherry, Sr. Francis Guess June 14, — July 23, was an American businessman, civil rights advocate, and leading member of the business community in Nashville, Tennessee.

Francis Stuyvesant Peabody — August 27, was an American businessman who founded Peabody Coal, and became a wealthy coal baron. Frank A. Frank Elijah Sagendorph, 2nd March 28, — May 5, was a leading Philadelphia industrialist and president of the Penn Metal Corporation of Pennsylvania, also known as Penco, which was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Frank Hornby 15 May — 21 September was an English inventor, businessman and politician. Francis Carson "Frank" Hough born 12 April is a former Australian politician who remains politically active. Francis James "Frank" Ivancie born July 19, is an American businessman and politician who served as mayor of Portland, Oregon, from to Francis Penhalluriack is an Australian businessman, entrepreneur and local political figure.

Frank S. Frank Gustave Zarb born February 17, is an American businessman and former Republican politician. Frankie DeCarlos Patrick born July 14, , better known by his stage name Frankie DeCarlos, is an American singer-songwriter, record producer, musician, and entrepreneur. Fred Chase Koch September 23, — November 17, was an American chemical engineer and entrepreneur who founded the oil refinery firm that later became Koch Industries, a privately held company which, under the principal ownership and leadership of Koch's sons, Charles and David, is listed by Forbes, as of , as the second-largest privately held company in the United States.

Fred C. Tucker Company from to Frederick Adrian DeLuca October 3, — September 14, was an American businessman, best known as the co-founder of the Subway franchise of sandwich shops. Fred G. Fred Niblo Jr. January 23, — February 18, was a successful American screenwriter. Fred Sherman January 7, — September 12, was an American economist, businessman and business commentator based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Fred T. Gibson and built in for a businessman, Frederick Sterling, and his wife Lucina.

Winifred Utley January 23, — January 21, , commonly known as Freda Utley, was an English scholar, political activist and best-selling author. Frederic H. Dustin, Ph. Frederic W. Galbraith born Frederic W. Galbraith, Jr. Frederick Augustus Tritle August 7, — November 18, was an American politician, businessman, and attorney.

Frederick H. Frederick Henry Tout 13 January — 4 July was an Australian solicitor, pastoralist, businessman and politician who was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council for 14 years. Frederick W. Sir Frederick Wigan, 1st Baronet, J. L 4 October ; 2 March was an English businessperman. Frederick Thomas Wimble 28 November — 3 January was an Australian printer and pioneer ink manufacturer and later a publisher and Member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland representing the Electoral district of Cairns.

Freeman Briley Ransom was born on his family's farm in Grenada, Mississippi as one of sixteen children. Friedrich Engels. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Fritz Henrik Schur Junior born 27 November is a Danish businessman with ties to both royal, business and political circles in Denmark. FTF — Confederation of Professionals in Denmark Danish: FTF was founded in and is an umbrella organisation one of the three national trade union centers for 86 Danish trade unions.

Gerard David Schine, better known as G. David Schine or David Schine September 11, — June 19, , was the wealthy heir to a hotel chain fortune who became a central figure in the Army—McCarthy hearings of in his role as the chief consultant to the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Gary "Jason" Bergenske born September 10, is an American businessman and entrepreneur.

Gerard Luz A. James, better known as G. James, circa - September 16, was a U. Virgin Islander politician, lawyer, businessman and broadcaster. Gordon Richard Thoman often known as G. Gabby Nsiah Nketiah born 1 October is Ghanaian businessman and politician. Gabriel Heyward Mahon Jr. November 11, — June 11, was a U. Representative from South Carolina. Galaxy Communications is a fictional American multinational media corporation in the DC Comics universe.

Anne Gale Kelly Thomson 17 May — March 8, was an American public and political figure, anti-tax activist, businesswoman, and benefactor. Gary William Loveman born April 12, is an American businessman and former academic professor. A Gas contractor is a person or a group of persons that are professionally licensed, bonded, and insured to deal in all aspects of natural or propane gas installs, repairs, sales and service.

Gbenga Daniel born 6 April is a Nigerian politician and Governor of Ogun State of Nigeria from 29 May to 29 May , making him the longest-serving governor of the state. Gene Reynolds born Eugene Reynolds Blumenthal, April 4, is an American actor, television writer, director, and producer. Geno R. Martini born January 19, is an American politician and former businessman.

Geoffrey "Geoff" Brown born c. Geoffrey William Stirling March 22, — December 21, was a Newfoundland businessman and media magnate. William Geoffrey Keighley OAM 10 January — 14 June was an English barrister, businessman, first-class cricketer, farmer, grazier and legislator. George A. October 30, — October 12, was the board chairman of Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, which at one time was the largest black-owned business west of the Mississippi.

Cowles - was a 19th-century American businessperson, founder of banks, companies, and a railway, and Southern California landowner He was one of the early business leaders in San Diego and a prominent rancher in San Diego County. George Alexander Muthoot born September 16, is an Indian entrepreneur and businessman, he is currently the Managing Director of the Muthoot Group, a business conglomerate in India. George Bradley Fitch February 7, — December 30, was a business consultant and Republican politician.

Barnes",Most likely to distinguish him in newspaper reports from his contemporary, the prominent British parliamentarian George Barnes. George Bryan January 27, was a Pennsylvania businessman, statesman and politician of the Revolutionary era. George Calil was a Lebanese businessman who operated his business in the Nigerian city of Kano. George Ellis Johnson Sr. George Escol Sellers November 26, — January 1, was an American businessman, mechanical engineer, and inventor.

George F. George Herbert "Bert" Walker Sr. June 11, — June 24, was an American banker and businessman and the maternal grandfather of President George H. Bush and a great-grandfather of President George W. Bush both of whom were named in his honor. George Hooks born May 9, is a Democratic former member of the Georgia State Senate, representing the 14th District from through George Howard Paul March 14, — was an American newspaperman, businessman and Democratic politician who served one term as a member of the Wisconsin State Senate representing its 6th District in Milwaukee County; and held various other offices of honor locally and in the government of the state of Wisconsin.

George L. George Masa - June 21, , born Masahara Izuka, in Osaka, Japan, was a businessman and professional large format photographer. George Mason I 5 June — was the American progenitor of the prominent American landholding and political Mason family. Bjrkman, Die altosmanische Literatur, L. Deny eds. Sdosteuropa-Jahrbuch2, Mnchen , , die allerdings vorwiegend die Volkskultur und nicht so sehr die Belletristik betreffen, und mit Hilfe eines systemtheoretischen Zugangs von Irina G.

Neupokoeva Istorija vsemirnoj i sravnetielnogo analiza, Moskva , die von kommunizierenden Literatursystemen und die sie regulierenden Regelkreisen spricht, wobei sich regionale und zonale Systeme mehrfach berkreuzen knnen bzw. Prolegomena zu einer literaturwissenschaftlichen Bal- kanistik, Sdosteuropa-Mitteilungen 34, , So gehren die sdslavischen Literaturen der slavischen Sprachgemeinschaft an, die rumnische der romanischen.

Es wre aber auch denkbar, nicht von blo sprachlichen, sondern stilistischen Zugehrigkeiten auszugehen Renaissance, Ba- rock, Aufklrung, Romantik, Realismus oder von Einfluzonen der Kulturmetropolen Venedig, Wien. Reinhard Lauer hat auch ohne den systemtheoretischen berbau einen typologischen Zugang versucht Typologische Aspekte der Literaturen Sdosteuropas. Eine Einfhrung in ihre Gemeinsamkeiten, Besonderheiten und zeitgenssischen Probleme, Die zeitgenssischen Literaturen Sdosteuropas, Mnchen , , der noch von empirisch realisierbaren ideengeschichtlichen Hintergrnden ausgeht.

Zur Kritik dieser Art von Systemtheorien, die in der deutschen Soziologie in den 60er Jahren in Mode waren struktural-funktionale Systemtheorie , sei angemerkt, da die Komplexitt kultureller Prozesse selten jenen Organisationsgrad der Teilpartikel untereinander er- reichen, die es erlauben wrde, selbst von einem offenen System zu sprechen, was an dem Problem der Definierbarkeit der Teile und des Ganzen trotz Superzeichen und Hypercodes der Ethnose- miotik und vor allem an der Voraussagbarkeit und Manipulierbarkeit der nderungen bei jedem Eingriff in ein Einzelteil bzw.

Derartige theoretische Simplifizierungen und grobe Modellbildungen entsprechen nicht dem komplexen historischen Zu- sammenspiel der sdosteuropischen Kleinliteraturen und ihrer Einbindung in grere sprachliche, epochale, stilistische, kulturgeographische und ideologische bzw. Insofern ist auch die Mglichkeit, Avantgarde als System zu apostrophieren, kritisch zu hinterfragen, als die meisten der Avantgardebewegungen des In Bezug auf die Rezeption und Integration sthetischer Strmungen und epochaler Stilbegriffe in den Kulturzonen Sdosteuropas, die auch in der europischen Literatur- komparatistik nicht immer ganz die gleichen Bedeutungsschattierungen aufweisen, ist das Prinzip des Schrfeverlustes der Konturen zu beobachten, welches die konkrete Hin- terfragung und Spezifizierung des jeweiligen Stilbegriffs in der jeweiligen Kulturzone nach seinem semantischen Inhalt, dem intendierten sthetischen Verstndnis bzw.

Es ist dies ein literaturtheoretischer Sektor, der die sdosteuropische Kulturkomparation besonders interessant macht, weil die prinzipiell begrenzte Belastbarkeit solcher sthe- tischer Begriffe in der empirischen Anwendung im weiteren Balkanraum besonders augenfllig wird. Die gngigen Etikettierungen der einzelnen nationalen Literaturge- schichten stimmen mit den kodifizierten eurozentrischen Begriffsfassungen nur selten berein.

Damit liefert die Balkankomparatistik einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Problematik einer methodischen Grundsatzkritik des begrifflichen Instrumentariums der Periodisie- rung und des sthetisch-stilistischen Kanons der europischen Literaturgeschichte. Erster Teil: Lyrik und narrative Literatur.

Das Nachleben der byzantinischen Belletristik auf ihrem skularen Sektor, sowohl in der koine wie auch in den demotizistischen Stillagen, bezieht sich auf Abschriften und Adaptionen, Vers- und Prosafassungen rimada und fyllada im Falle des Alexanderro- mans , auf bersetzungen und Bearbeitungen in die sdslavischen Sprachen und das Rumnische. In der ekklesialen Tradition des Mittelalters steht auch die religise Drama- tik im ungarischen und dalmatinischen Bereich prikazanje, vgl.

Im venezianischen Knigreich Candia Kreta, ab bis verknpft sich die Tradition byzantinisch-religiser Versdichtung auch noch vor dem Fall Konstantinopels mit italienischen Vorbildern2: vgl. Das gleiche gilt fr die Cento- Komposition des sogenannten Zypriotischen Passionszyklus aus Bibelstellen, die ihrem Prolog nach sogar fr eine Auffhrung gedacht war wahrscheinlich Holton ed. Mit der Verwandlung des Knigreichs Serbien in ein paalik erlischt auch hier jegliche Literaturproduktion.

Die erste Rezeptionsphase der nachmittelalterlichen Neuzeit, die in verschiedenen Legierungskombinationen Renaissance, Humanismus und Reformation umfat, be- schrnkt sich auf den uersten der konzentrischen Kreise rund um das balkanische Kerngebiet: Ungarn, Siebenbrgen, Dalmatien, die Ionischen Inseln, Kreta, Dodeka-.

Bakker und Arnold F. Ausgaben: F. Megas, ,. Kritische Ausgabe: Stylianos Alexiu, Heraklion Der lteste Druck wurde in der ffentlichen Bibliothek der elsssischen Kleinstadt Slestat Schlettstadt entdeckt Evro Layton, Zacharias und Nikolaos Kalliergis and the first edition of the Apokopos of Bergadis, Thesaurismata 20, , Eine philologische Umschrift dieser Erstausgabe hat Nikolaos M.

Panagiotakis vorgenommen -. Seither ist eine Flut von philologischen Kommentaren, Textverbesserungen usw. Zu den byzantinischen und postbyzantinischen Unterweltsfahrten, theo- logischen und satirischen, vgl. Stelios Lampakis, , Athen Renaissance, Humanismus, Reformation Mit der Ausnahme der ostmitteleuropischen Bereiche geht es fast ausschlielich um maritime Besitzungen der Serenissima in der Adria, der gis und im Ostmittelmeer. In diesen Randgebieten der Balkanhalbinsel bildet jedoch das by- zantinische Kulturfundament bzw.

Der Humanismus bringt eine neulateinische Literaturproduktion hervor, die etwa in Ungarn mit Janus Pannonius Jnos Csezmicei oder Kesencei , dem Bischof von Pcs, vertreten ist, der neben religisen auch skulare und sogar sehr weltliche Gedichte geschrieben hat und fr seine Epigramme berhmt geworden ist7, in den Hafenstdten des dalmatinischen Kstenstreifens vergleichbar etwa mit Jacobus de Bona Jakov Buni aus Ragusa, Verfasser von epischen Werken, Aelius Lambridius Cerva Ilija Crijevi , ebenfalls aus der freien Republik Ragusa, einem Lyriker, und Georgius Sisgoreus Juraj igori Weiter im Sden ist zwar nicht die Kenntnis des Lateinischen9, aber die lateinische Literaturproduktion eher beschrnkt, was auch mit der Tatsache in Zusammenhang zu bringen ist, da das Lateinische, anders als in Ungarn und Kroatien, nicht die offizielle Amtssprache gewesen ist.

Das Bildungsprestige des Humanismus nimmt im brigen die lingua franca des mediterranen Raums auf sich: das Italienische in den Besitzungen der Serenissima das Venezianische. Eine weitere Komparationskonstante dieses uersten konzentrischen Zyklus ist die unmittelbare Bedrohung durch das Osmanische Reich: Die Schlacht bei Mohcs fllt ins Jahr , Rhodos fllt , Zypern , Kreta , nur den Ionischen Inseln und den dalmatinischen Hafenstdten blieb die Einglie- derung ins Osmanische Reich erspart.

In aktuellen Umdeutungen traditioneller sujets ist dieser geopolitische Hintergrund immer wieder deutlich prsent. Sowohl die Reformation wie die Gegenreformation haben der neulateinischen, aber auch der nationalsprachigen Literaturproduktion einen wesentlichen Impuls vermittelt, darber hinaus aber auch neue Literaturgattungen hervorgebracht, die der Glaubenspo-.

Texte in Hrvatski latinisti. Croa- tici auctores qui latine scripserunt, 2Bde. Diese satirischen und polemischen Gedichte, Kampfschriften und Prosatraktate bzw. Tendenzdramen, die bereits im Zwischenraum von Belletristik und Gebrauchstexten stehen, werden allerdings im Kapitel Satirische Literatur und Parodie in breiterem Zusammenhang, d.

In der protestantischen Literaturproduktion spielt der ungarische prdiktor r, der Prediger-Schriftsteller, eine besondere Rolle, nicht nur bei der Herstel- lung und Verbreitung von polemischen Prosatexten und Bibelbersetzungen, sondern wie Jnos Sylvester ca. Die fhrende Figur ist hier freilich Pter Bornemisza , der ne- ben Predigten und religisen Liedern auch eine Adaption der Elektra Wien verffentlicht hat10, ganz hnlich wie Dominko Zlatari in Ragusa, der in Venedig auch eine Elektra-Bearbeitung herausbringt Hier waren die Auseinan- dersetzungen in der Glaubensfrage nicht von solcher Heftigkeit gekennzeichnet, doch ist es immerhin charakteristisch, da die Reformation ber den norditalienischen Protestan- tismus bis ins ferne Kreta Anhnger gefunden hat: wird dem auf seine Heimatin- sel zurckgekehrten Literaten am Hofe von Ferrara, Ioannis Kassimatis ca.

Heftig waren die Auseinan-. Manusos I. Panagiotakis, o - , Thesaurismata 18 , Panagiotakis, , Ariadne 1, Rethymno , , auch im Band dess. Genuiner Ausdruck des anthropozentrischen Weltverstndnisses der Renaissance ist jedoch die Liebeslyrik im Stil von Francesco Petrarca , die auch in den Randzonen Sdosteuropas im Dies gilt sowohl fr Ungarn, wo die postum edierte Liebeslyrik des fh- renden Dichters des Hlfte des Den Abschlu dieser Petrarca-Rezeption mar- kieren Dinko Ranjina , ragusischer Kaufmann, der siebenmal Frst der Republik gewesen ist, mit seiner lebensnahen, unkonventionellen Gedichtsammlung Pjesni razlike , und Brno Krnaruti ca.

Kritische Edition Sndor Echardt in 2Bnden. Dazu auch Tibor Klaniczay, Renesznz s barokk, Budapest , ff. Smrt Pirama i Tizbe Am hellenophonen Mediterranbereich schlieen sich hier auf Kreta die beiden z. Zu Lebensdaten ca. Contrasto di un fanciulla e di un giovane, [Roma ]. Das ABC der Liebe. Eine Sammlung rhodischer Liebeslieder, Leipzig , dann von D.

Beobachtungen und Notzien zum codex Marc. Dazu Lucia Marcheselli Loukas, - : Modelli ritmici dellendecasillabo cipriota, Thesaurismata 21 , ; dies. Von den sonettartigen Kurzformen der Liebeslieder lassen sich die erotischen Er- zhllieder um die schicksalshaften Verwicklungen und romantischen Abenteuer der Liebenden unterscheiden, die vielfach an den hellenistischen und byzantinischen Ro- man erinnern Solche verwickelte Liebesgeschichten in Liedform sind bei den im Greren Umfang knnen auch die historischen Gedichte und Lamentationen auf den Fall einer Stadt an die Osmanen annehmen, die aus verschiedenen Traditionen der Heldenpoesie herrhren, u.

Im magyarischen Bereich gibt es ein eigenes genre fr diese epischen Verslieder, histris nek; als ltestes Beispiel gilt die Beschreibung der Schlacht um Szabcs In der 2. Buda veszsrl s terek blint fogsgrl wurde gedruckt, wo die Ttigkeit der Hajduken-Truppen hajdu an der Militrgrenze in Ungarn beschrieben ist, oder es findet sich die Beschreibung der Belagerung der Feste von Eger Egervr viadal- jrl , ein Stoff, der auch in der sdslavischen Volksepik zu finden ist, hnlich wie man auch Stoffe aus dem Kroatischen aufgenommen hat, wie die Geschichte von Knig Bla und der Tochter von Bank Auch in der breiteren Mischgattung der sz- phistria gibt es solche Preislieder wie das von Pter Ilosvai Selymes auf Alexander den Groen oder die bekannte Geschichte der auerordentlichen Heldentaten des Nicolas Toldi Dergleichen Heldenlieder finden sich berall, wo die Trkenge- fahr eine gelebte Realitt darstellte: so in Dalmatien, wo Brno Krnaruti ca.

Solche Erzhllieder stehen manchmal auch in einem differenten Kontext, wie z. Besonders ausgeprgt sind diese Lamentationen natrlich im Falle der halosis von Konstantinopel , wo sich mndliche und schriftliche Komposition berschneiden: die ber tausend Verse umfassende von Emmanuel Limenites, das anonyme , der Threnos auf Konstantinopel, der dialo- gische Threnos der vier Patriarchen usw.

Durch diese Literaturproduktion wurde die Tradition der oralen Lamentationen auf den Fall einer Stadt wesentlich bestrkt. In derselben Tradition der Belagerungsbeschreibungen ist auch die Belagerung von Malta zu sehen nach , von Antonios Achelis, dem gleichnamigen Gedicht von P. Gentil de Vendosme nachgestaltet. Daneben gibt es. Ausgabe von Georgios K. Spyridakis in Byzantinisch-Neugriechische Jahrbcher 15 , Gegenreformation, Manierismus, Barock Mit den z. Der Gebrauch der Prosa ist in der Belletristik noch eher selten; die Idee artifizieller Literaritt ver- bindet sich eher mit metrischen Formen.

Religiser und moraldidak- tisch-piettisch gibt sich das unvollendete Epos Der Pilger Piligrin des Bene- diktinermnches Mavro Vetranovi , lyrische und reflektierende Gedichte mit Gesellschaftskritik und gegen Unmoral, die Heimatliebe deutlich mit Trkenfurcht und Kritik an den Venezianern konterkarieren, wo die Snde den Menschen in ein Tier verwandelt: je nach Kardinalsnde in ein anderes.

Eigentliche Prosaerzhlungen sind noch selten. Petar Zorani aus Za- dar hat eine Romanerzhlung, Die Gebirge Planina , verfat, wo eine Ge- birgsreise ins Hinterland von Dalmatien angetreten wird, um Liebesleid zu vergessen. Dieses erste Prosawerk in Dalmatien zeichnet sich durch eine klare Bildsprache aus und bildet eine entfernte Imitation der Arcadia von Jacopo Sannazaro.

Mit dem Mavromatis, , Heraklion Witwe zirkuliert im Whrend sich die Gegenreformation chronologisch durch das Tridentinische Konzil festlegen lt und vor allem durch die Ausbreitung des Jesui- tenordens in Sdosteuropa auf dem Kultursektor fabare Gestalt annimmt Ausbildung, Kollegien, Jesuitentheater , ist der Stilbegriff des Manierismus als Periodisierungsin- strument zeitlich schwieriger zu begrenzen, insofern der Begriff vielfach auch diachro- nisch verwendet wird36, im konkreten Fall aber auf das Italien des Interessanter ist der Barockbegriff, der seit seiner Einfhrung durch Wlfflin auch auf den sdosteuropischen Raum Anwendung gefunden hat Der 4.

Slavistenkongre in Moskau war dem orthodoxen Barock gewidmet39, doch fand der Begriff fr die sdslavischen Literaturen auch schon frher Anwendung40, wenn man nur an die bahnbrechende Monographie von Matthias Murko denkt41; doch ist es richtig, da die einschlgige Literatur seit sprunghaft zugenommen hat Fr den hel-. Ren Hocke, Die Welt als Labyrinth. Manier und Manie in der europischen Kunst, Ham- burg ; ders. Buck, Forschungen zur romanischen Barockliteratur, Darmstadt , ist mit dem Hinweis auf Benedetto Croce zu modifi- zieren.

Josip Hamm, etvrti meunarodni kongres slavista u Moskvi, Slovo , Angyal, Die slavische Barockwelt, Leipzig ; ders. Barner ed. Pribi, Studien zum literarischen Sptbarock in Binnenkroatien. Adam Aloisius Barievi, Mnchen ; ders. Majeti, Prinzipielle und besondere Problematik in der Erforschung der kroatischen Literatur und des kroatischen Theaters vom Jahrhundert, Anzeiger fr Slavische Philologie 1 , ; Z.

Kravar, Studije o hrvatskom knjievnom baroku, Zagreb ; ders. Pavlii, Rasprave o hrvatskoj baroknoj knjievnosti, Split ; ders. Rasprave iz hrvatske knjievnosti, Zagreb usw. Vergleichend: A. Lipatov etal. Zum Sptbarock bei den Serben: M. In Bezug auf die Parallelitt der humanistischen und vor allem von Venedig her beeinfluten Kulturblte auf dem dalmatinischen Kstenstreifen bzw. Insofern ist es vielleicht angebracht, den Gattungsvergleich diesmal im Sden zu beginnen.

Die kretische Literatur der Hochblte bis zum Fall der Groinsel an die Osmanen hat, neben ihrer italienischsprachigen Literaturtradition48, vor allem das. Dann programmatisch Mario Vitti, - - , , Bd. Ausgabe, Athen , For- schungsbericht und Forschungsfrage, Maske und Kothurn 26 , Nach lterer Peri- odisierungspraxis wurde in Griechenland, Bulgarien und Serbien als Renaissance die Nationswer- dung der Wiedergeburtszeit preporod, anagennesis, vzradane bezeichnet, whrend die vor der Staatsgrndung liegende Phase als Mittelalter apostrophiert wurde, unabhngig vom west- und mitteleuropischen Periodisierungskanon des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit.

Jireek, Staat und Gesellschaft im mittelalterlichen Serbien. Dritter Teil, Wien , 59, 67f. Jahrhunderts, Regensburg , ff. Drama gepflegt und neben dem Versroman Erotokritos siehe in der Folge vor allem ein bukolisches Versidyll hervorgebracht, Die Schferin , mit einer slich-tragischen Liebesgeschichte im Pastoralmilieu, um anonym verfat, in Venedig herausgegeben, von dem aufgrund seiner groen Popularitt auch Volksversi- onen auf den gisinseln existieren Als bukolischer topos katexochen galt der kretischen Literatur der Bltezeit der Berg Ida Psiloreitis Im Gegensatz zu Ragusa hat die kre- tische Dialektliteratur des Ein umfang- reiches Klagelied auf den Fall der Peloponnes an die Trken ca.

Im Bereich des Diaspora-Griechentums bewegt sich bereits die Sammlung - Blten der Frmmigkeit von griechischen Studenten in Venedig, gedruckt dort Hier wird die Kraft der Liebe noch im vorgerckten Alter besungen und die Bedeutung des Genusses angesichts der Vergnglichkeit hervorgehoben, z. Vincent, : ,. Dort verfat er noch zwei Dramenwerke, die uns noch beschftigen werden.

Zur Biographie nun Spyros A. Dem Sptbarock bzw. Rokoko ist der Benediktiner Ignjat ori zuzurechnen, der ebenfalls eine Mandaljena Pokornica verfat hat, dessen bisweilen bizarre Ausdrucksweise jedoch vor allem die Sammlung Verschiedene Begebenheiten einer unglcklichen Liebe Razliite zgode nesrene ljubavi kennzeichnet.

Diese epigonischen Produkte beschrnkten ihren Leserkreis jedoch auf Ordensleute und Kleriker. In Ragusa selbst, das durch das verwstende Erdbeben an Kulturdynamik eingebt hat, kann sich noch eine gewisse Gelegenheitsdichtung halten, bis der Einmarsch der napoleonischen Truppen neue Voraussetzungen fr die Literaturproduktion schafft.

Interessant ist jedoch am dalmatinischen Kstenstreifen das seit der Renaissance anhaltende Interesse der Literaten an der mndlichen Dichtung aus dem Hinterland: Der Franziskanerpater Andrija Kai Mioi , Ange- nehmes Gesprch des slavischen Volkes Razgovor ugodni naroda slovinskoga , hat in seiner Reimchronik ber die Trkenkmpfe in Form der Volkslieder im berhm- ten deseterac auch echte Volkslieder aufgenommen; diese Sammlung, die selbst wieder auf die mndliche Tradition eingewirkt hat, war ein enormer Lese- und Verlagserfolg Ein ganz hnliches Interesse an der Volkskultur lt sich auch in Slovenien dokumentie- ren, wo Ivan Vajkard Valsavor Die Ehre des Herzogtums Krain herausbringt, das heute noch als Quelle der historischen Volkskunde benutzt wird.

Hier verfat Leopold Volkmer lyrische Gedichte in Form des Volksliedes, die ebenfalls bereits im bergang zur mndlichen Tradition stehen. Gelegenheitsgedichte wurden auch im Literaturalmanach Ostereier Pisanice von verffentlicht Neben der populren Lyrik der Singbcher gab es in Ungarn auch Hofpoesie mit Istvn Gyngysi als bedeutendstem Vertreter: Sein Gesprch der Ve- nus von Murny mit Mars Mrssal trsalkod Murnyi Vnus, vereinigt noch den barocken mythologischen Gtterapparat mit amoursen Abenteuern der Rokoko- zeit und anakreontischen Landschaftsschilderungen.

Noch bekannter in Adelskreisen ist jedoch das Gedicht um den listigen Cupido geworden Csalrd Cupido, , das zwar vor bermigem Erosgenu warnt, die Liebesverirrungen jedoch derar- tig verlockend beschreibt, da die pdagogische Didaktik wohl ihr Ziel verfehlt ha-.

Solche Werke fhren uns in die Kultur der Adelshfe in den magyarischen Grogrundbesitzungen ein, mit Musikkonzerten und Theatervorstellungen, die sich noch bis tief ins Unter diesen Adelsdichtern ist auch Frst Blint Balassa zu finden, ein Verwandter des Renaissancedichters, der Palatin Pl Esterhzy selbst mit Natur- und Jahreszeitengedichten Az nyrrl val nek, Az zrl val nek, A tlrl val nek , Istvn Kohry mit meditativer allegorischer Traumlyrik wie in den Gedichten zum Zeitvertreib d mulats kzben szerzett versek, und als erste Dichterin Kata Szidnia Petrczi mit einigen Liebesgedichten neben ihrer religisen Lyrik.

Neben dieser Exklusivpoesie der lokalen Adelshfe gab es jedoch die miszellanen Liedersammlungen, die von Soldaten und Studenten, Handwerkern und Dorfschullehrern gelesen wurden; sie beinhalteten Lamentationen auf den Fall einer Stadt in den Trkenkriegen, Sol- datenlieder, Klagelieder und vor allem Liebeslieder, auch noch Reimchroniken; dazu zhlen der handschriftliche Mtray Codex nach , das Gesangsbuch von Teleki ca.

Daneben gibt es noch die tendenzis-patriotischen und subversiven kuruc-Gedichte der Unterschichten- poesie von und ber Deserteuren, Rebellen, Vaganten usw. In den Transdanubischen Frstentmern ist die Lyrik noch eng an die religise Thematik von vanitas vanitatum und fortuna labilis gebunden, wie etwa die philosophische Lyrik von Miron Costin, Viaa lumii Das Leben der Welt 56, oder fllt in die Tradition der Reimchroniken und Lamentationen wie Plngere Sfintei Mnstiri a Silvaului Beweinung des hl.

Klosters Silva , das den schweren Stand der Orthodoxie in Trans- sylvanien beschreibt. Weiter stlich ist noch Konstantinopel zu bercksichtigen, wo sich die phanariotische Lyrik noch lange im Bereich der barocken Allegorik bewegt die von Ioannis Rizos Manes, Venedig , und die umfangreiche - eines grzisierten Westeuropers mit 4.

Nahe an der Reimchronik, um wieder nach Kreta zurckzukehren, steht die Schilderung der 25jhrigen Belagerung von Candia , die mit dem Fall der Groinsel an die Osmanen endete und damit auch das Ende der kretischen Literatur bedeutete , verfat von Marinos Tzane Bunialis und gedruckt in Venedig Unmit- telbar ist jedoch das italienische epische Vorbild der Mythisierung des Ersten Kreuzzugs auf das unvollendete dalmatinische Epos des Osman von Ivan Gunduli , entstanden , gedruckt erst Die aristokratische Familie untersttzte die italienische jesuitische Mission , durch die Gunduli auch seine Ausbil- dung erhalten hat Der im Laufe seines Lebens hohe Verwaltungsposten bekleidende Patrizier hat neben seinem unvollendeten Hauptwerk auch einige lyrische Gedichte, zehn Dramenwerke davon fnf erhalten, unter ihnen die berhmte Dubravka, vgl.

Hauptwerk des bedeutendsten ragusischen Dichters des Cooper, Torquato Tasso in Eastern Europe, ibid. Jensen, Gunduli und sein Osman, Gteborg ; O. Frankfurter Abhandlungen zur Slavistik, Wiesbaden , ; V. Haler, Gunduliev Osman v estetskov gledita, Beo- grad ; Mirko Deanovi, Les influences italiennes sur ancienne littrature yougoslave du littoral adriatique, Revue de littrature compare , ; Edelgard Albrecht, Das groherrliche Seraj in Ivan Gundulis Epos Osman, Zeitschrift fr Balkanologie 5 , usw.

Die jesuitische Kollegbildung in Ksten- und Binnenkroatien, ent- scheidend fr die Barockliteratur und das Ordenstheater, verlief folgendermaen: Zagreb , Ri- jeka , Varadin , Osijek , Poeg , Split vgl. Der Versstil ist gekennzeichnet durch er- lesene Metaphern und Gleichnisse, realistische Lebenswiedergabe, mythische Mchte der Unterwelt greifen in die Handlung ein, wie berhaupt der barocke Gtterapparat noch eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Wie generell in der dalmatinischen Renaissance- und Barockliteratur werden auch hier die Volkslieder der mndlichen Tradition gepriesen und mit der Lyra von Orpheus verglichen.

Die Versfhrung zeichnet sich durch die Vir- tuositt von Reimen und Rhythmen aus. Das zwanzig Gesnge umfassende Versepos Gesang unvollendet ist im trochischen Achtsilber mit kreuzreimigen Strophen verfat. Der mandrische Handlungsgang zeichnet sich durch eine Flle von halbinteg- rierten idyllischen, sentimentalen und pastoralen Nebenepisoden aus. Damit vergleichbar, sowohl was die Nhe zu Tassos Kreuzzugsepos als auch das Thema der Trkenfurcht betrifft61, ist das Epos Szigeti verszedelem ber die Belage- rung von Szigetvr von Mikls Zrnyi , das die einmonatige Belage- rung der Stadtburg zum Gegenstand hat, die sein gleichnamiger Urgrovater gegen die Armee von Sleyman dem Groen verteidigt hat vgl.

Das 6. Die Haupthandlung der Schlachtenszenen endet mit der Apotheose der gefallenen Helden durch vom Him- mel herabsteigende Engel und ist angereichert mit Episoden einer Liebeshandlung Zrnyi, aus der bekannten kroatisch-ungarischen Familie im Sdwesten Ungarns, war selbst einer der fhrenden Militrkommandanten seiner Zeit, und seine Kriegserfah- rung in den Scharmtzeln an der habsburgisch-osmanischen Grenzlinie, die quer durch Ungarn verlief, ist in seine Schlachtenschilderungen eingeflossen.

Carl Gellner, Turcica. Die europischen Trken- drucke des Jahrhunderts, 3Bde. Fr den dalmatinischen Kstenstreifen speziell A. Albrecht, Das Trkenbild in der ragusanisch-dalmatinischen Literatur des V er srom a n, V er snov el l e In das ferne antike Athen und eine renaissancehaft-humanistische Mythos-Geographie des Ostmittelmeers entfhrt uns der im kretischen Dialekt verfate Versroman des Erotokritos von dem Venetokreter Vincenzo Kornaros Cornaro , in den ersten Jahr- zehnten des Zu den traditionellen bersetzungen ins Rumnische Vasile Grecu, Erotocritul lui Cornaro n literatura romneasc, Dacoromania 1 Cluj , , zur trkischen Johann Strauss, Aretos ni Savd: the nineteenth-century Ottoman translation of the Erotokritos, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 16 , Die heutige Standardausgabe ist die kritische von Stylianos Alexiu, Athen mehrfach wiederaufgelegt , zu den Ausgaben und Wiederauflagen seit vgl.

Zur Erstinformation: David Holton, Romance, ders. Ausgabe des Bandes Athen mit ergnzter Bibliographie ; ders. Panagiotakis in 23 , Der barocke Erosroman mit seinem sentimentalen Stoff und den humor- vollen Reflexionen und distanzierenden Kommentaren des Erzhlers hat eine ganze Reihe von griechischen Dichtern des Nach Magabe des Vorherrschens der Theaterliteratur auf Kreta zeigt der Versroman auch manche Strukturen der klassizistischen Dramatik: ein Fnf- Teile-Schema und neben den narrativen Passagen auch umfangreiche Dialoge in direk- ter Rede, wobei die Sprechpersonen wie im Drama seitlich angeschrieben sind Von besonderem Interesse ist jedoch der zweite Teil des Romans, wo in ber 2.

Es ist die These aufgestellt worden, da dieser Teil des Romans aus einem unabhngigen poema eroico einer Turnierdeskription entstanden sein knnte, wie eine solche aus Canea Chania in italienischen ottave rime erhalten ist Die Herkunft dieser manieristischen Ritter mit Gewand in Symbolfarben,. Die Werkdatierungen differieren zwischen vor und nach Die umfangreiche Fachkontroverse sei hier bergangen.

Lassithiotakis, , Thesaurismata 26, , ; ders. Walter Puchner, Giostra und barriera. Ostmediterrane Turnierspiele von Venedig bis Zypern in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung und machtpolitischen Funktion, ders. Im Separatduell zwischen dem Kreter und dem Karama- niten Trken , wo der schwarzgekleidete frchterliche Ritter aus SO-Kleinasien den Tod findet, sind aktuelle Anspielungen auf die geopolitische Situation der Zeit zu sehen.

Trotzdem ist die Interpretationsebene dieses phantastischen Lanzenturniers nicht ein- deutig: Sie kann hellenozentrisch gesehen werden Antike, Byzanz, venezianische bzw. Lateinerherrschaft im Ostmittelmeer, Feindschaft mit Trken, Slaven, Vlachen , vene- tozentrisch die Herkunftsorte der Ritter sind meist Seefestungen der Serenissima, das Austragungsdatum am Festtag von San Marco, die Feindschaft zu den Osmanen, die Rolle Venedigs als zweites Byzanz [Kardinal Bessarion] und Erbe klassischer Kultur [Athen] 70 oder konventionell im Rahmen der beliebten Turnierschilderungen seit dem mittelalterlichen Heldenepos als fiktive Utopie ohne Systematisierung der geopoliti- schen Anspielungen Das Turniermotiv war auch in der kretischen Dramenliteratur.

Interpetationen bei Rosemary E. Bancroft-Marcus, Interludes, Holton ed. Cristiano Luciani, Manierismo cretese. Ricerche su Andrea e Vincenzo Cornaro, Roma Zum Vergleich mit den italienischen Turniergedichten ders. Larme e gli amori. Athen Danielsen vertreten worden LErotokritos dans une nouvelle perspective historique, , Bd. Das Minnethema scheint zu berwiegen.

Die politischen Anspielungen zwi- schen Kreta und dem Osmanischen Reich sind zeitbezogen, die Tatsache, da in engerer Auswahl Kreta, Zypern und Athen um den Preis kmpfen, deutet auf das Bewutsein klassischer Erbfolge, die gerade diese Provinzen Venedigs nach dem Fall von Byzanz antraten.

Griechisch-klassisches Kulturbewutsein in renaissancehafter Prgung verbindet sich in Cornaro mit dem Verantwor- tungsbewutsein venezianischer Staatsraison als Beherrscherin der ostmediterranen Inselreiche. Den Siegeskranz erringt in Erotokritos natrlich das klassische Altertum. Als Beispiel fr eine Versnovelle mag die Neue Geschichte von Athesthis aus Ky- thera eines unbekannten Dichters aus Kefa- lonia figurieren, Venedig gedruckt, deren italienisches Vorbild noch nicht eruiert werden konnte; wie die Insel Kythera Cerigo als Herkunftsort des Haupthelden schon nahelegt, geht es um die Verwicklungen einer Liebesgeschichte Als Paradigma fr einen barocken Prosaroman mag die ebenfalls erst krzlich in einer akephalen Handschrift der Athe- ner Parlamentsbibliothek entdeckte griechische bersetzung aus der Feder eines unbekannten heptanesischen Autors, und zwar des erfolgreichsten italienischen Barockromans Calloandro fedele von Giovanni Ambrosio Marini, angesehen werden, in der die barocke Theatermetapher eine herausragende Rolle spielt Die Rezeption von Prosabelletristik setzt auch fr die Transdanubischen Frstentmer in der epoca fanarioilor ein: Fr das Jahrzehnt von oder ist krzlich eine griechische Gesamtbersetzung des Don Quijote aus dem Italienischen von einem unbekannten Gelehrten am Hof der Familie Mavrokordatos in Bukarest bekannt gewor- den74, whrend sich auch eine phanariotische dramatische Bearbeitung des lateinischen Barockromans Argenia von John Barclay erhalten hat Europische Volksliteratur.

Festschrift F. Karlinger, Wien , , bes. Zuerst von Cornelia Papa- costea-Danielopolu angezeigt: La satire social-politique dans la littrature dramatique en langue grecque des Principauts , Revue des tudes Sud-Est Europennes 15 , , bes. Dialogchronik in archaisierendem Prosagriechisch des Voevoden Nikolaos Mavrokordatos , verfat , gedruckt Wien , wirklich als erster neugriechischer Roman zu betrachten ist, bleibe dahingestellt Hatte die Belletristik bisher einen schweren Stand, sich gegen die theologischen, moral- didaktischen und erbaulichen Schriften durchzusetzen78, so sind es mit der Aufklrung nun Sachliteratur, philosophische und politische Traktate, Reiseberichte, wissenschaft- liche Abhandlungen und bersetzungen, die Fiktivliteratur und Sprachkunstwerke per se in den Hintergrund treten lassen.

Die Epistolographie nimmt bisher ungeahnte Aus- mae an. Die Prosa berwiegt gegenber der versifizierten Lyrik und dem Drama. Der Petrarkismus wird von der Anakreontik abgelst, der neue Begriff von Natur und Natr- lichkeit schrnkt die Sprachmanierismen ein. Didaktische Strategien der Weltbild- und Wertpropagierung nehmen die Fiktion in Dienst, das factum ist dem fictum bergeordnet. Die Rezeption mittel- und westeuropischer Aufklrung in Sdosteuropa verluft ber. Drama in Form von immer ausgedehnter werdenden Bhnenanweisungen in eine Erzhlung zu- rckverwandelt.

Zum Inhalt Konstan- tinos Th. Dimaras, N , Athen , Die Meinung hat Henri Toinnet vertreten , Athen , 75 , Mario Vitti hat Zweifel geuert , Athen , , da in den lockeren, in Ich- Form gehaltenen Erzhlbericht eines Sommertages des Jahres in Konstantinopel mit belang- losen Vorfllen und Begegnungen politische und moralische Traktate eingeschaltet sind. Zur Frage, inwieweit im speziellen Fall eine Rezeption der osmanischen Hoflyrik eine Rolle gespielt hat, mssen noch weitere Studien erstellt werden.

Zur sdosteuropischen Aufklrung im Zeitraum in Bezug auf die Nationalidee vgl. Mit der caduta di Serenissima entfllt Venedig als kultureller Einflufaktor neben dem Os- manischen Reich und wird vorerst durch die Donaumetropole der Habsburger ersetzt; Ungarn ist nach dem Ausgleich der Habsburgermonarchie eingegliedert und kann so- mit seine literarische Sonderstellung in der sdosteuropischen Belletristik noch weiter ausbauen.

Der dalmatinische Kstenstreifen wird literarisch nun immer unbedeutender, Binnenkroatien, Slovenien und Serbien stellen ihre ersten Literaten. Auch in Rum- nien wie anderswo ist der Typ des Aufklrers ein Konglomerat von rezeptiver Ttigkeit in bersetzungen und Bearbeitungen, Historiographie, didaktischer, parnetischer und erbaulicher Literatur, wissenschaftlichen und philosophischen Traktaten sowie Sachlite- ratur, wobei die reine Belletristik kaum anzutreffen ist.

Die mit der mitteleuropischen Kultur nun eng verbundenen Ungarn treten in ihre klassizistische und nationalistische Epoche mit bedeutenden Literaten ein. Insofern ist es vielleicht angebracht, wieder mit den Griechen im Sden zu beginnen, ein Ansatz, der nun allerdings direkt nach Norden fhrt, in die Kulturzentren Konstantinopel, Bukarest, Kozani und Ioannina.

Aufgrund der nun sich rasch vermehrenden Anzahl von Literaten und Literatur- werken wird zunehmend auf Auswahlbeispiele zurckgegriffen werden. Der Schwie- rigkeit einer grenzscharfen Trennung zwischen fiktiver Belletristik und Sachliteratur, moraldidaktischen Schriften und populrwissenschaftlichem Traktat wird mit einer be- griffsbegrenzenden Strategie begegnet, die Belletristik mglichst eng zu fassen, um ein unkontrolliertes Ausufern des Materials einzudmmen Die hellenophone lyrische Produktion der Zeit bewegt sich von der Anakreontik des phanariotischen Voevoden der Moldau Alexandros Mavrokordatos - , anonym in Moskau verffentlicht 80 bis zur Frhromantik in den Wien des Arztphilosophen und bersetzers Georgios Sakel- larios aus Kozani, der nach seinem Medizinstudium in Wien als diplomier-.

Dimaras charakteristisch , Athen , fr den Aufklrung und Ideengeschichte ein bevorzugtes Forschungsfeld waren. Rokoko und Aufklrung Die meisten von ihnen waren keine Phanarioten83, wie Dionysios Foteinos , der Wien eine phanariotische Paraphrase des Erotokritos herausbrachte, oder Michail Perdikaris mit seinem sozialkritischen Erzhlgedicht in 20Oden , bewegten sich im zentralbalkanischen Raum, waren aber von der phanariotischen Kultu- ratmosphre Konstantinopels und der Transdanubischen Frstentmer beeinflut.

Der bekannteste von ihnen war Athanasios Christopulos , Neuer Anakreon , dessen bis nicht weniger als zehn Auflagen erfahren haben und in die europischen Hauptsprachen bersetzt worden sind. Ebenfalls Sprachreformer war Ioannis Vilaras , am Hofe von Ali Pascha in Ioannina : Er ist vor allem durch sein Sprachmanifest H Korfu bekannt geworden, in dem er ein neues phonetisches orthographisches System des Griechischen propagiert und wo sich auch einige Gedichte befinden Andere Dichter wenden sich unmittelbar dem po- litischen Lied bzw.

Das Lehrgedicht ber den Zorn des Jesuitenpaters Thomas Stanislaus Velastis Rom steht schon an der Grenze zum moraldidakti- schen Schrifttum, ist jedoch durch seine innovative Vershandhabung interessant Zu seinen sechs Dramenberset- zungen vgl. Dimaras, , , Athen , , bes. Nachdem der Stern der Lagunenstadt Venedig schon im ganzen Der bedeutendste Schriftsteller ist hier der Dra- matiker Tito Brezovaki , der auch sozialkritische Verse verfat hat.

Die fhrende kosmopoliti- sche Aufklrerfigur ist jedoch ohne Zweifel Dositej Obradovi : Unter seinen vielfltigen Schriften nehmen die Verse kaum einen Platz ein, eher noch die didaktischen, Lessing nachgestalteten Fabeln Basme In Slovenien wird der Literatenkreis um iga Zois gegen Jahrhundertende aktiv, dem auch der Dramatiker Anton Linhart und der Franziskaner Valentin Vodnik angehrten, welcher neben Bauernkalendern, landeskundlichen Aufstzen usw.

Eine bedeutende Aufklrerfigur in Rumnien war Dimitrie Cantemir ; als belletristisch wird man jedoch hchstens seine allegorische Tiergeschichte Istoria ieroglific um den Kampf zwischen Einhorn und Raben einstufen knnen, die den byzantinischen Tierbchern, vor allem aber dem Katz-Muse-Krieg nachgebildet ist Ganz anders ist die Situation in Ungarn, wo ganze Gruppen von Lyrikern in die- ser Phase der Ausformung nationaler Ideologie auftreten; der Wiederaufbau des Lan- des nach den katastrophalen Kuruzenkriegen steht im Zeichen Maria Theresias, doch sind fast alle Dichter antihabsburgisch eingestellt und fhlen sich dem bodenstndigen Ungartum verpflichtet.

Die eine Gruppe entstand aus der ungarischen Garde Maria Theresias in Wien und scharte sich um Gyrgy Bessenyei , der neben Thea- terstcken, Pamphleten und dem erst viel spter verffentlichten Roman um die Reisen von Tarimenes Tarimnes utazsa, auch philosophische Gedichte in hand- schriftlicher Form verfate das Naturgedicht A termszet vilga um , das Ere- mitenpoem A bihari remete zwischen und : der Kreis der testr rk.

Dazu gehrten auch Ferenc Kazinczy , der deutsche Klassiker bersetzte, sich. Zu Cantemir vgl. Eine andere Gruppe experimentierte mit dem klassischen ungarischen Alex- andriner: Dvid Barti Szab , Jzsef Rjnis , Mikls Rvai und Benedek Virg ; letzterer kann schon als Vorlufer der Romantik gelten.

Eine weitere Gruppe von Dichtern gehrte der jakobinischen Konspiration von Ignc Martinovi an, die in ffentlichen Hinrichtungen endete89 die meisten von ihnen wurden in Kufstein gefangengesetzt : Jnos Batsnyi mit seinem aktuellen Gedicht auf die Franzsische Revolution A franciaorszgi vltozsokra , aber vor allem mit seinen im Gefngnis entstandenen Kufsteiner Elegien Kufsteini elgik, die unverffentlicht blieben ; sein Zellennachbar in den Kufsteiner Kerkern Lszl Szentjbi Szab , der Rokokogedichte verfat hatte, wurde zum Tode verurteilt.

Lungenentzndung Tdgyladsomrl Zu erwhnen ist auch Dniel Berzse- nyi mit seinem Brieffragment an eine befreundete Dame Levltredk bartnmhoz , der bereits im bergang zur Romantik steht. Aufgrund dieser enor- men, vitalen und vielfltigen poetischen Produktion, bei der patriotische Magyarisie- rung, Geschichtspflege und Respektierung der Volkskultur neben Rokoko, littrature sentimentale und aufklrerischem Rationalismus mit klassizistischen Tendenzen die Grundkonstanten abgeben91, ist das nun habsburgische Ungarn mit dem brigen Sd- osteuropa kaum zu vergleichen.

Im phanariotischen Raum von Konstantinopel endet der Kreis, der mit dem Griechi- schen begonnen hat: mit den mismagies trk. Diese Salonliedchen finden sich auch eingestreut im Neos Erotokritos und in Prosaerzhlungen wie , vgl.

Aus dem gleichen Konventionsbereich stammen auch die handschriftlichen Gedichtbersetzungen von Metastasios Lyrik Der eventuelle Einflu osmanischer Lyrik auf diese Produktion ist erst krzlich postuliert worden Aufklrung und Sentimentalismus sind die Hoch-Zeit der Prosa, in der sich konven- tionelle Gattungen wie der Prosaroman und die Prosaerzhlung nach europischem. Records, s. CD recording and text. Weidinger, Ottoman Empire and European Theatre.

Vorbild auch in Sdosteuropa zu formieren beginnen. Auch auf dem Gebiet des nicht- versifizierten Wortes sind die Stillegierungen zwischen Rokoko und Aufklrung man- nigfaltig. Um gleich im phanariotischen Kulturraum zu bleiben, sind diesbezglich zwei Erzhlsammlungen zu erwhnen: die Schule der delikaten Liebenden von Rigas Velestinlis, eine Bearbeitung der Erzhlun- gen von Restif de la Bretonne96, und die Folgen der Liebe , , die heute dem Sprachreformer in Bukarest Ioannis Karatzas und dem Epiroten Athanasios Psalidas zugeschrieben werden Solche Produkte der littrature sentimen- tale scheint es auch noch andere gegeben zu haben Barthlemy bersetzt, Tlmaque von Fnlon , Wielands Aga- thon usw.

Das Rezeptionsprofil in Ungarn ist durchaus vergleichbar, manches davon etwas zeitverschoben: Die Ausformung der Literaturgattung Roman ist in der hellenopho-. Thomopoulos, Loriginal de lcole des amants dlicats de Rhigas Velestinlis, Byzantinisch- Neugriechische Jahrbcher 18 , Die neueste Ausgabe von Mario Vitti, Athen Georg Veloudis, Germanograecia.

Deutsche Einflsse auf die neugriechische Literatur , 2Bde. Zur europischen Rezeption Gessners R. Lchinger, Salomon Gessner in Italien. Sein literarischer Erfolg im In Ungarn kommt das Ruralmilieu strker zum Zug in der griechischen Literatur erst ab , z. Dem hat die rumnischsprachige und sdslavische Literatur belletristisch kaum etwas Gleichwertiges entgegenzusetzen. Die beraus grte Anzahl der Prosaschriften dies gilt praktisch fr alle Literaturen Sdosteuropas in dieser Zeit, die Ungarn vielleicht zum Teil ausgenommen sind der Sprachfrage gewidmet in dieser Phase durchlaufen die meisten sdosteuropischen Literaturen ihre Sprachkonsolidierung , nationalpoli- tischen Thematiken, historischen, landeskundlichen, pdagogischen, philosophischen und wissenschaftlichen Aspekten, oder sie gehren dem moraldidaktischen und religis- erbaulichen Schrifttum an bzw.

In den einzelnen Nationalliteraturgeschichten wird die Differenzzone zur Belletristik hin ziemlich frei interpretiert, was natrlich auch mit der Tatsache zusam- menhngt, da sich die einzelnen Aufklrerpersnlichkeiten an allen mglichen Sparten des Schrifttums beteiligt haben. Da der Begriff der Belletristik in dieser Zusammenstellung strenger gehandhabt wird, mag der Leser in der Darstellung manches vermissen, was er gewohnt ist, an dieser Stelle in einer Litera- turgeschichte zu finden.

Mit dem Eintritt in das Die Unabhngigkeit Rumniens und Bulgariens vollendet diesen Proze, doch ist der Aufbau einer selbstndigen Nationalideologie schon Jahrzehnte vorher in vollem Gange. Dieser praktisch in allen Balkanlndern par- allel ablaufende Proze der Indienststellung von Wissenschaft und Knsten in die Ge- schichtskonstruktionen und Lehrgebude nationalstaatlicher Selbstndigkeit erhht die Vergleichbarkeit der Literaturproduktion in den Einzelstaaten: Im Negativsinne bildet sich hier eine typologische Prolongation balkanischer Gemeinsamkeiten heraus, indem nach der Schlieung der Grenzen in Feindbildern und negativen Heterostereotypen ausschlielich auf die Differenzen zu den Nachbarn hingewiesen wird, aber fast alle tun dies auf ganz hnliche Weise; die Typologien der Strategien eigener Vergangenheitsver- herrlichung im Aufbau des nationalen Geschichtsmythos, der Pflege einer einheitlichen Literatursprache im ethnisch mglichst homogenen Nationalstaat, die vehemente Ab- lehnung jeglicher Modalitt von Fremdherrschaft oder Hegemonialkultur, aber auch die Kritik an den sozialen und politischen Mistnden im Innern der Lnder sind ver- blffend hnlich.

In den Lndern des Doppeladlers geschieht dies durch Kulturkmpfe, unter dem Halbmond jedoch mit verlustreichen militrischen Auseinandersetzungen, die letztlich zur territorialen Unabhngigkeit fhren; doch am Schachbrett der Ori- entalischen Frage setzen die Gromchte sofort wieder landesfremde Frstenhuser ein, die die Kulturspannungen nicht abflauen lassen und auf einer anderen Ebene erneut erhhen Ablehnung und Satirisierung westlicher Kulturmoden.

In diesem Milieu des pointierten Patriotismus und Irredentismus hat die nun durchwegs westorientierte Belletristik kaum eine Chance auf wirklich freie Entfaltung, obwohl vor allem die Romantik bedeutende Dichtergestalten hervorgebracht hat Nach den Herderschen Vorgaben wird der programmatische Zugang zu Volkslied und.

Volkskultur zu verschiedenen Zeitpunkten gesucht. Die einzelnen Literaturstrmungen aus Mittel- und Westeuropa erfahren in ihren Mimesisstrategien, Umformungen und Integrationsweisen in autochthone Traditionen interessante Modifizierungen: Roman- tisches vermischt sich mit Klassizistischem, extreme Positionen der deutschen Roman- tik kommen kaum zum Zug, die Rezeption des Realismus erfolgt mit unterschiedlicher Zeitverschiebung, beschrnkt sich manchmal auf die Dorfthematik oder gert in eine Gemengelage mit dem Naturalismus usw.

Erst der Einbruch der Moderne setzt dieser unmittelbaren thematischen und ideologischen Vergleichbarkeit und Kommensurabili- tt ein vorlufiges Ende, da nach die Rezeption von Naturalismus, Symbolismus und sthetizismus, in manchen Lndern auch Expressionismus und Avantgarde, die unmittelbare ideologische Indienstnahme der Literaturproduktion wenigstens teilweise reduziert.

Unter Romantik wird in den verschiedenen Literaturgeschichten Sdosteuropas ziemlich Unterschiedliches verstanden. Hier ist das in der Einleitung formulierte Prin- zip des Schrfeverlustes der Konturen augenfllig. Meist ist der Begriff sehr breit gefat und bewegt sich in einem gewissen Sinne an der Oberflche: Es ist nicht so sehr die elaborierte Dichtungstheorie, die rezipiert wird, sondern bestimmte thematische Ste- reotype und als romantisch deklarierte Motive, die eine solche Etikettierung legiti- mieren.

Eine gewisse Unsicherheit der Kategorisierung ist jedoch bereits der europ- ischen Literaturgeschichte selbst inhrent: Die europischen Literaturgeschichten, mit Ausnahme der deutschen, rechnen die Weimarer Klassik etwa zur Romantik, ebenso wie Sturm und Drang und den Sentimentalismus.

Darber hinaus ist in manchen Fl- len eine bedeutende Zeitverschiebung zu beobachten: Als griechische Romantik, die in zwei Versionen existiert Athener Schule und Schule der Ionischen Inseln , wird der Zeitraum von bis bezeichnet, und die Rezeption des europischen Realis- mus fllt mit dem Eindringen des franzsischen Naturalismus praktisch zusammen Whrend in Mittel- und Westeuropa die Romantik eine eher inselhafte Reaktion ge- wisser intellektueller Kreise auf die biedere brgerlich-rationale und pragmatistische Aufklrung darstellt, die dann als breiter main stream gewissermaen bruchlos in den Realismus des Ein hnlich breites Verstndnis ist auch fr den Realismus anzutreffen, der sich vielfach auf die Handhabung thematischer Vorgaben und Motivs-.

Walter Puch- ner, , , then , Zum rumnischen und sdslavischen Naturalismus in seiner Eigenart vgl. Romantik und Realismus Besonders breiten Raum nehmen in den realistischen Stilstrmungen der sdosteuropischen Literaturen die Dorfthematik bzw. Nach Magabe des in der Einleitung explizierten Rezeptionsmodells der Kulturkreise der konzentrischen Ringe um den inneren Balkanraum wren wir nun beim innersten Kreis angelangt, wo Literaturen in die belletristische Produktion eintreten, die bisher kaum oder gar nicht vertreten waren, wie Bulgarien, Serbien, Montenegro und das rumnisch- sprachige Rumnien, z.

Aufgrund der Tatsache, da sich die Anzahl der Autorenpersnlichkeiten und Literaturwerke vervielfltigt, ist eine para- digmatische Vorgangsweise angezeigt, die sich auf tiefergehende Analysen nicht einlas- sen kann. Statt dessen soll versucht werden, den Schwerpunkt auf sprachbergreifende und transnationale gattungsmige, thematische und stilistische Komparationsversuche und Typologien zu legen, da dies jene Dimension ist, die man in den nationalen Litera- turgeschichten nicht oder kaum finden kann.

Lyrik und Prosa sind nun, wie zum Teil auch schon vorher, nicht mehr streng zu tren- nen aufgrund der Existenz von Prosagedichten und Verserzhlungen, des Versge- brauchs in Satiren, Pamphleten u. Literaturgattungen bzw. Beginnen wir mit Griechenland, das nach dem wechselhaften Verlauf des Freiheits- kampfes als erstes seine territoriale Autonomie erringen konnte als Staat anerkannt.

Hier prgt die Sprachfrage vereinfachend als Diglossie zwischen der Reinsprache katharevusa und der Volkssprache dimotiki bezeichnet die gesamte Li- teraturproduktion und kompliziert die Entwicklung Belletristik wurde im gesamten. Hannick ed. Hering, Nostos. Gesammelte Schriften zur sdosteuropischen Geschichte, ed. Im Li- teraturbereich kam es nicht nur sprachlich, sondern auch politisch-historisch zu einer Art Zweiteilung: Im unabhngigen Knigreich der bayerischen Monarchie dominierte zuerst die Phanariotische Literatur der Athener Schule, auf den immer venezianisch gebliebenen, ab bis dem britischen Commonwealth einverleib- ten Ionischen Inseln hatte sich jedoch schon Ende des Die romantische Lyrik setzt in der Heptanesischen Schule der Sieben Inseln auf den Ionischen Inseln noch whrend der Griechischen Revolution, und zwar auf Zante mit der Hymne an die Freiheit von Dionysios Solo- mos , ein, in einem Monat entstanden, vielbeachtet und in viele.

Schrifttum eingebrgert hat, ist schon von Hans-Georg Beck kritisiert worden Geschichte der by- zantinischen Volksliteratur, Mnchen , Kra- mer etal. Sprachen bersetzt, sowie mit den Oden von Andreas Kalvos , in Mesolongi und in Paris gedruckt in Genf die Lyra, zehn weitere pa- triotische Oden und in Paris weitere zehn , die in ihrer klassizistischen Versform und archaisierenden Sprachgebung in ihrer Zeit kaum Beachtung fanden.

Die beiden Dichter mit italienischer Bildung zeigen sehr unterschiedliche Zugnge zur Roman- tik und haben einen bedeutenden Teil ihrer Dichtung im Italienischen verfat Ugo Foscolo, ihr Vorbild, war ebenfalls auf Zante geboren Zwei exzentrische Romantikerschicksale, deren poetische Bedeutsamkeit erst postum erkannt wurde und die sich das Griechische als literarisches Ausdrucksorgan erst erarbeiten muten: Kalvos schafft sich ein eigenes metrisch-stilistisches Instrumentarium, Solomos knpft an das Volkslied und die kre- tische Literatur an in seinem lehrhaften Dialog verteidigt er die Volkssprache gegen den Archaismus und die Reformen von Koras , obwohl seine frhe Lyrik noch im Stil von Christopulos vgl.

Es existieren viele Ausgaben seiner griechischen und italienischen Fragmente, am interessantesten vielleicht Stylianos Alexiu, Athen Zu seiner politischen Ttigkeit in Italien vgl. Kostas Porfyris, K, Athen Die freien Belagerten bilden einen in verschiedenen Fassungen existierenden Gedichtzyklus ber den tragischen Exodus von Mesolongi , der in der europischen Literatur tiefe Spuren hinterlassen hat Die meisten dieser lyrischen Kompositionen sind Frag- ment geblieben wie auch der , Hai im Zante-Dialekt, der die letzten Mo- mente und Gedanken der Selbsterkenntnis eines im Meer schwimmenden englischen Soldaten beschreibt, der von einem Hai zerrissen wird; der Tod in den Armen der Natur durch die vernunftlos wilde Kraft wird zu einem Moment der Erfllung.

Von all diesen Gedichten war bei seinem Tod auer der Hymne auf die Freiheit nichts bekannt. Zu diesem Zeit- punkt war Kalvos schon in England. Seine 20Oden haben Heimat und Revolution zum Thema und sind in ihrer eigentmlichen Versform vier siebensilbige Zeilen und fnf- silbiger Schluvers dem Klassizismus mit feierlich gehobenen Tonlagen in geschlosse- nen Formbgen verpflichtet; doch dominieren romantische Motive wie Nacht, Sterne, Winde, Wolken, Tod, Blut, Grber und Trnen, aber auch klassizistische Reminiszenzen sind anzutreffen wie olympische Gtter, die Tchter des Parna usw.

Zu dem Kreis um Solomos auf den Ionischen Inseln zhlen Antonios Matesis , bersetzer von Ossian und Gray und Verfasser anakreontischer Gedichte im Stile von Christopulos, Georgios Tertsetis mit Gedichten in der Volks- sprache, Andreas Laskaratos mit seinen satirischen Versen und den My- sterien von Kefalonia , die ihm die Exkommunizierung einbrachten, Iulios ypaldos mit Solomos nachempfundenen Versen o sowie mit einer Versbersetzung von Gerusalemme liberata im Stil von Ero- tokritos , Iakovos Polylas , der den poetischen Nachla von Solo- mos herausgegeben hat, Sonette verfat, Shakespeare bersetzt Sturm in Prosa, Hamlet in Versen und Provinznovellen geschrieben hat, Gerasimos Marko-.

Ein Kapitel brgerlicher Trivialdramatik und romantisch-exotischer Melo- dramatik im europischen Vormrz, Sdost-Forschungen 55 , Beitrge zur Theater- wissenschaft Sdosteuropas, Bd. Insgesamt bietet die Heptanesische Schule ein ziemlich heterogenes Gesamtbild, hnlich wie auch die Athener Hier zeichnet sich anfnglich eine Bewegung von der phanariotischen Mischsprache zu forcierter Archaisierung des literarischen Expres- sionsorgans ab, das sich in der zweiten Jahrhunderthlfte zu einer Art pseudoattischen Hochsprache mit seltenen und gesuchten Epipetha des Altertums versteigt.

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