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Plasma glucose was measured using the Trinder method and plasma calcium, cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in an autoanalyzer. Plasma dopamine was low at the initial bleed Plasma corticosterone rose progressively for the first 4 hr, declined at 8 hr and 24 hr, then rose again at 48 hr. Plasma glucose rose significantly by 24 hr and remained elevated for 48 hr. Plasma calcium increased at 1, 2, and 4 hr then returned to levels not significantly different from the initial sample at 24 and 48 hr.

The white blood cells showed changes indicating immune system suppression. These results suggest that handling alligators, taking multiple blood samples, and keeping them restrained for more than 8 hr is a severe stress to the animals. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.

Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment. Baseline plasma corticosterone , haematological and biochemical results in nesting and rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta. Flower, Jennifer E. Michael; Mitchell, Mark A. Effects of anesthesia with halothane and methoxyflurane on plasma corticosterone concentration in rats at rest and after exercise.

To determine whether halothane and methoxyflurane are suitable anesthetics for cardiac puncture in studies of plasma corticosterone concentration in rats, four experiments were done. Blood samples were taken immediately after rats became anesthetized with halothane or methoxyflurane. Decapitation without anesthesia was used to determine baseline corticosterone concentration. Another group of rats was anesthetized with ether as a positive control known to stimulate corticosterone secretion.

Corticosterone values in halothane- and methoxyflurane-treated rats were not significantly different from those measured after decapitation. Corticosterone concentration in halothane-treated rats was significantly lower than that in either methoxyflurane- or ether-treated rats. Cardiac puncture was done after 3 min of exposure to each of the three anesthetics. The results indicated that there were no differences in corticosterone values among the three anesthetics, suggesting that corticosterone concentration was lower immediately after halothane was used as the anesthetic, because halothane induced anesthesia in less time than that required for activation of adrenocortical secretion.

To determine whether there was a difference among anesthetics in stimulating corticosterone secretion when anesthesia was maintained for a period before blood sample collection, cardiac puncture was done after 15 min of exposure to each of the three anesthetics.

Corticosterone values were similar, suggesting that any of the three anesthetics was acceptable in this situation. To determine whether halothane or methoxyflurane affected exercise-induced increases in corticosterone values, exercise-trained rats were run for 30 min; then blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture immediately after induction of anesthesia with halothane, methoxyflurane, or ether, or after decapitation without anesthesia.

Corticosterone values were not different among the three anesthetics or decapitation. Effects of acute temperature change, confinement and housing on plasma corticosterone in water snakes, Nerodia sipedon Colubridae: Natricinae. Body temperature affects many aspects of reptilian behavior and physiology, but its effect on hormonal secretion has been little studied, especially in snakes.

Major objectives of this study were to determine if acute changes in body temperature during confinement influenced plasma corticosterone levels and if initial body temperatures upon capture in the field were related to baseline corticosterone levels in water snakes Nerodia sipedon. Water snakes were bled upon capture in the field and after one hour of confinement in a cooled, control, or heated incubator. Since little is known about the potential metabolic changes in response to stress in reptiles, plasma triglyceride levels were also measured.

Upon completion of the field study, snakes were housed for days without food to determine the effect of chronic stress on both corticosterone and triglyceride levels. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay ELISA and plasma triglycerides were determined enzymatically. In the field, experimental alterations of body temperature during confinement had no effect on corticosterone levels. Similarly, there was no correlation between initial body temperature and baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations.

However, post-confinement corticosterone levels were approximately three-times greater in females than males. Plasma triglyceride levels were not affected by temperature treatment, confinement, or sex. Compared to field values, both baseline and post-confinement corticosterone levels were elevated after the chronic stress of short-term laboratory housing but triglyceride levels decreased. Overall, these results indicate that sex but not body temperature has a major influence on the adrenocortical stress response in Nerodia sipedon.

Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus CS with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus US , resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses CRs. Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures.

Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine NE and serotonin 5-HT in prefrontal cortex PFC but not in striatum ST. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures.

Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions. Effects of anesthesia and blood sampling techniques on plasma metabolites and corticosterone in the rat. Blood is routinely sampled from laboratory animals in biomedical research, and many of the commonly applied sampling techniques require anesthesia.

Acute effects of many sampling and anesthesia procedures may confound the results, but those effects are incompletely characterized. Also, we included in the comparison two other blood sampling procedures usually performed without anesthesia NA , i. This must be considered for. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers.

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated plasma corticosterone CORT levels on meat quality characteristics. Male broilers Arbor Acres were either 1 fed a diet containing corticosterone CORT prior to processing, 2 transported by truck for 3 h before processing, or 3 processed without either of the above treatments.

Six crates of birds 10 birds per crate; two crates per treatment were stunned or killed using CO2 gas. Six birds per crate were processed and blood samples were collected during exsanguination for plasma CORT analysis. Meat samples were collected from carcasses either at 20 min or at 4 h post-mortem. At each sampling time ST , Pectoralis superficialis samples were collected and either individually quick frozen IQF in liquid nitrogen or aged on ice AOI for 24 h prior to pH, ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides R-value , cooking loss, shear value, and color analyses.

There were significant treatment by ST P Inhibition of immobilization stress-induced anorexia, behavioral deficits, and plasma corticosterone secretion by injected leptin in rats. Leptin, originally identified as an anti-obesity hormone, also has an important role in the regulation of mood and emotion. The present study was designed to monitor effects of injected leptin on immobilization stress-induced anorexia, behavioral deficits, and plasma corticosterone secretion in rats.

Animals exposed to open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition tests the day following immobilization exhibited anxiety-like behavior. Leptin injected at doses of 0. Immobilization-induced decreases in food intake, body weight, as well as stress-induced behavioral deficits in the open field, elevated plus maze, and light-dark transition test were reversed by exogenous leptin in a dose-dependent 0.

Animals injected with leptin at a dose of 0. Immobilization-induced increases of plasma corticosterone were reversed by leptin injected at doses of 0. The data suggest that exogenous leptin can reduce stress perception, resulting in an inhibition of stress effects on the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavior. The reported pharmacological effects of leptin represent an innovative approach for the treatment of stress-related disorders.

Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats. Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water ppm; lead acetate for 5 weeks.

The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test FST. Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull Larus argentatus embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in and artificially incubated in the laboratory.

Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.

The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis ICHH suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system.

Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. Lines of Japanese quail Coturnix japonica selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line as well as in a control stock we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero sham , low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin PHA -induced immune response, as well as body condition.

There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

Effects of trapping and subsequent short-term confinement stress on plasma corticosterone in the brown treesnake Boiga irregularis on Guam. The effects of capture in a live trap and subsequent handling stress on plasma concentrations of corticosterone and other sex steroids were examined in wild male and female brown treesnakes Boiga irregularis , an introduced species on Guam that has been implicated in the extirpation or decline of many of that island's vertebrate species.

Males and females that spent 1 night in a trap had plasma levels of corticosterone about four and two times higher, respectively, than those of the respective free-ranging controls. Mean plasma levels of corticosterone of snakes that had spent 3 nights in a trap were intermediate between, but not significantly different from, those of snakes that had spent 1 night in a trap and free-ranging snakes, suggesting that some acclimation to capture occurred during this period.

Snakes that were taken from traps and held in collecting bags for 10 min and 2 h prior to blood sampling had levels of corticosterone about two and three times higher, respectively, than those of control snakes that were taken from traps and bled immediately. Concentrations of plasma corticosterone in free-ranging females were about two times higher than those of males but were well within the range of basal levels observed in other reptiles.

Few snakes of potential reproductive size were reproductive males: 1 of 35; females: 2 of 33 , and plasma concentrations of testosterone and progesterone in nonreproductive males and females, respectively, were accordingly low.

The possible relationship between corticosterone and these sex steroids, therefore, could not be adequately assessed, although there was a positive relationship between plasma progesterone and corticosterone in the nonreproductive females. Nonetheless, as a prerequisite for studies on the seasonal hormonal cycles of this species on Guam, our observations raise the possibility that the stress caused by trapping could affect the levels of other sex steroids and that, therefore, such studies should use.

Abstinence from prolonged ethanol exposure affects plasma corticosterone , glucocorticoid receptor signaling and stress-related behaviors. Alcohol dependence is linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we investigated effects of repeated ethanol intoxication-withdrawal cycles using chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation; CIE and abstinence from CIE on peak and nadir plasma corticosterone CORT levels.

Irritability- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as glucocorticoid receptors GR in the medial prefrontal cortex mPFC were assessed at various intervals 2hd after cessation of CIE. Results show that peak CORT increased during CIE, transiently decreased during early abstinence d , and returned to pre-abstinence levels during protracted abstinence d.

Acute withdrawal from CIE enhanced aggression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Early abstinence from CIE reduced anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, the data demonstrate that acute withdrawal from CIE produces robust alterations in GR signaling, CORT and negative affect symptoms which could facilitate excessive drinking. Taken together, transition to alcohol dependence could be accompanied by alterations.

The effect of long-term corticosterone treatment on blood cell differentials and function in laboratory and wild-caught amphibian models. The effect of long-term stress on amphibian immunity is not well understood. We modeled a long-term endocrine stress scenario by elevating plasma corticosterone in two species of amphibians and examined effects on white blood cell differentials and innate immune activity.

Plasma corticosterone was elevated in American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus by surgically implanting corticosterone capsules and in African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis by immersion in corticosterone -treated water.

To provide a context for our results within endogenous corticosterone fluctuations, diurnal plasma corticosterone cycles were determined. A daily low of corticosterone was observed in X. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels increased the ratio of peripheral neutrophils to lymphocytes, in both species, and decreased eosinophil concentrations in L. Whole blood oxidative burst generally correlated with neutrophil concentrations, and thus was increased with corticosterone treatment, significantly in L.

Peripheral monocyte and basophil concentrations were not significantly altered by corticosterone treatment in either species. Our results show that long-term stress can alter amphibian immune parameters for extended periods and may play a role in susceptibility to disease.

All rights reserved. Brief anesthesia by isoflurane alters plasma corticosterone levels distinctly in male and female rats: implications for tissue collection methods. Euthanasia by anesthetic agents is commonly performed prior to tissue collection in order to minimize pain and distress to the animal.

However, depending on their mechanism of action as well as administration regimen, different methods of anesthesia may trigger an acute stress response through engaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis, which can impact numerous other physiological processes that the researcher may wish to examine as endpoints.

We investigated the effects of the commonly used anesthetic agent isoflurane on two different endpoints related to the stress response: plasma corticosterone levels and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor GR as well as several of its regulators including FKbinding protein 51 Fkbp5 in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Our results indicate that brief exposure to anesthesia by isoflurane prior to decapitation can alter plasma corticosterone levels differentially in male and female rats within minutes without impacting gene expression in the hippocampus.

We conclude that collection methods can influence stress-related physiological endpoints in female rats and the potential influence of even brief anesthesia as well as sex differences in response to anesthesia should be evaluated during the experimental design process and data interpretation.

This finding is particularly important in light of new NIH standards regarding sex and reproducibility, and care should be taken to be certain that sex differences in endpoints of interest are not an artifact of sex differences in response to collection paradigms.

Increased plasma nesfatin-1 levels may be associated with corticosterone , IL-6, and CRP levels in patients with major depressive disorder. Subjects in the patient group were randomly selected from the Anhui Mental Health Center, and subjects in the control group were selected from healthy volunteers. Healthy control subjects were matched in terms of weight and body mass index. The HAM-D scores and average nesfatin-1, corticosterone , IL-6, and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with major depressive disorder than those in the control group.

Daily Rhythm in Plasma N-Acetyltryptamine. Backlund, Peter S. The central issue addressed was whether N-acetyltryptamine is physiologically present in the circulation. Twenty four hour blood collections from rhesus macaques revealed a nocturnal increase in plasma N-acetyltryptamine P daily rhythm, together with known effects as a melatonin receptor ligand shifts the status of N-acetyltryptamine from pharmacological tool to that of a candidate for a physiological role.

This provides a new opportunity to extend our understanding of hour biology. Diel changes in plasma melatonin and corticosterone concentrations in tropical Nazca boobies Sula granti in relation to moon phase and age. Melatonin and corticosterone secretion are regulated by the circadian system and the two hormones play a role in the control of locomotor activity and foraging, which can be influenced by moon phases.

These seabirds have a long life span and in many vertebrates circadian function deteriorates with age. The functioning of the circadian system under different environmental conditions and changes related to age are poorly understood and hardly studied in wild birds. Nazca boobies had generally low plasma melatonin concentrations but showed a diel variation with higher concentrations at and h.

The diel variations in melatonin concentrations disappeared during full moon, suggesting that natural light levels at night can suppress melatonin secretion in Nazca boobies. Maximal melatonin concentrations tended to decline in older birds years. Birds showed a clear diel variation in basal plasma corticosterone with a peak in the early morning, before the active period begins, and low concentrations throughout the day.

As with melatonin, there were no diel variations in corticosterone at full moon, which may be due to different activity patterns in response to food availability or changes in the circadian system. While other studies have found a relationship between corticosterone and melatonin, we found no such correlation in Nazca boobies. The lunar cycle appears to affect the hormone titers of Nazca boobies both directly and indirectly. First, melatonin rhythms can be directly affected by the light intensity associated with full moon.

Second, prey availability may change foraging patterns and can therefore indirectly alter corticosterone secretion in Nazca boobies. In vertebrates, one main feature of stress response is the release of glucocorticoids corticosterone in reptiles , steroid hormones whose synthesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis HPA. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ELISA , we examined baseline plasma corticosterone levels of two syntopic and highly parasitized populations of the land iguana species Conolophus marthae and C.

We also used a poorly parasitized population of C. To better interpret the observed glucocorticoids patterns, we simultaneously performed the count of white blood cells WBCs in all individuals and investigated the reproductive status of females. We did not find evidence in support of either a positive or negative relationship between the tick load, hemoparasite infection, and glucocorticoid plasma concentration in C.

The comparison between parasitized and non-parasitized sites V. Wolf and Bahia Urbina would instead suggest an inverse relationship between corticosterone and parasites. Our findings support association between corticosterone plasma levels and reproduction. The breeding season duration hypothesis: acute handling stress and total plasma concentrations of corticosterone and androgens in male and female striped plateau lizards Sceloporus virgatus.

Acute glucocorticoid elevations can be adaptations to short-term stressors. The breeding season hypothesis predicts reduced glucocorticoid responsiveness to acute stressors in populations or species with short breeding seasons. The striped plateau lizard Sceloporus virgatus has a short breeding season in Arizona.

In both sexes, longer handling stress yielded higher corticosterone ; females had higher corticosterone than males at all time points. Androgens did not vary with handling duration, in either sex. Total plasma androgens and body mass residuals were positively associated in males, but showed no association in females. The maximal CORT elevation after handling stress in this single-clutching species was of comparable magnitude to responses in related multi-clutching lizard species with longer breeding seasons.

Using data from studies of multiple populations of three Sceloporus species, we found no relationship between the relative magnitude of the CORT increase and either latitude or elevation, two variables in the literature correlated with duration of the breeding season, and only weak relationships with geographic elevation and actual not relative stress-elevated CORT values in this multi-population comparison.

Towards a better preclinical model of PTSD: characterizing animals with weak extinction, maladaptive stress responses and low plasma corticosterone. Most of the available preclinical models of PTSD have focused on isolated behavioural aspects and have not considered individual variations in response to stress. We employed behavioural criteria to identify and characterize a subpopulation of rats that present several features analogous to PTSD-like states after exposure to classical fear conditioning.

Outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were segregated into weak- and strong-extinction groups on the basis of behavioural scores during extinction of conditioned fear responses. Baseline plasma corticosterone was measured prior to any behavioural manipulation. In a second experiment, rats underwent OFT, NSF and EPM prior to being subjected to fear conditioning to ascertain whether or not pre-stress levels of anxiety-like behaviours could predict extinction scores.

In addition, weak-extinction animals showed low levels of corticosterone prior to fear conditioning, a variable that seemed to predict extinction recall scores. In a separate experiment, anxiety measures taken prior to fear conditioning were not predictive of a weak-extinction phenotype, suggesting that weak-extinction animals do not show detectable traits of anxiety in the absence of a stressful experience.

These findings suggest that extinction impairment may be used to identify stress-vulnerable rats, thus providing a useful model for elucidating mechanisms and investigating potential treatments for PTSD. Effect of tidal cycle and food intake on the baseline plasma corticosterone rhythm in intertidally foraging marine iguanas.

In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone B have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative importance of the light:dark cycle versus food intake in influencing the rhythm in baseline B in a natural system.

Compared to other species, food intake is not as strictly determined by the phase of the light:dark cycle. Animals feed in the intertidal zone so feeding activity is heavily influenced by the tidal cycle. We found that baseline B levels were higher during the day relative to night. However, when low tide occurred during the day, baseline B levels dropped coincident with the timing of low tide.

Whether the baseline B rhythm including the drop during foraging is an endogenous rhythm with a circatidal component, or is simply a result of feeding and associated physiological changes needs to be tested. Predator stress-induced persistent emotional arousal is associated with alterations of plasma corticosterone and hippocampal steroid receptors in rat. To investigate the long-term effects of psychological stress on emotionality, the emotional arousal of rats in 4 months after predator stress was assessed in both an open field environment and elevated plus maze.

We also assessed the levels of plasma corticosterone CORT by radioimmunoassay, the distributions of brain glucocorticoid receptor GR and mineralocorticoid receptor MR by immunohistochemistry, and the expressions of GR and MR by Western blot. The results showed that intense predator stress, which was adjusted to ensure consistent stressor intensity using rat tonic immobility behavior, successfully induced lasting decreased locomotor activity and habituation to novel environments, suppressed exploratory behavior, and increased anxiety-like behavior.

The plasma CORT levels dramatically increased 1h after stress, then returned to basal levels at 1wk, decreased 1 month later, and remained significantly lower than control levels 4 months after exposure to stress. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GR was markedly increased in the hippocampus and frontal cortexes of stressed rats and that the changes in the hippocampus were more pronounced. In contrast, MR expression was significantly decreased in both brain regions.

Western analysis confirmed these dramatically elevated levels of GR expression and lower levels of MR expression in the hippocampus 4 months after stress. We conclude that acute severe psychological stress may induce long-term emotional behavioral changes, and that different patterns in plasma CORT, alterations in brain corticoid receptors, and increased hippocampal vulnerability to the effects of predator stress may play important roles in the persistent emotional arousal induced by intense psychological stress.

Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone , CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas. Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status.

The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible social instigation , or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters.

Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session.

Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels.

Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time.

Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition: a study in common terns. The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma corticosterone CORT and testosterone T in common tern Sterna hirundo chicks, a species whose young compete for access to food by scramble interactions.

Blood samples were taken in nests with two and only one single chick both immediately after a feeding bout and in non-challenged controls. We found that T levels were lower in siblings challenged by a feeding bout as compared to controls, which may be explained by the fact that T suppresses begging behavior and is only elevated in response to territorial intrusion but not sibling competition in a related species.

Singletons had, corrected for body condition, generally lower CORT levels than siblings suggesting that growing up with siblings creates a competitive environment in which high CORT levels are sustained irrespective of a social challenge. CORT levels were also negatively correlated with body condition and were higher in males than in females.

The latter may be related to sex-specific food requirements and susceptibility to stress. Our results suggest a possible suppressive effect of acute sibling competition on T secretion, and a positive effect on CORT levels by longer term sibling competition.

The degree to which these dynamics are related to begging or aggression, or both, needs further experimental work. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test. Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone.

The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT 1A receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration.

Elevated corticosterone in the dorsal hindbrain increases plasma norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y, and recruits a vasopressin response to stress. Repeated stress and chronically elevated glucocorticoids cause exaggerated cardiovascular responses to novel stress, elevations in baseline blood pressure, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

We hypothesized that elevated corticosterone Cort within the dorsal hindbrain DHB would: 1 enhance arterial pressure and neuroendocrine responses to novel and repeated restraint stress, 2 increase c-Fos expression in regions of the brain involved in sympathetic stimulation during stress, and 3 recruit a vasopressin-mediated blood pressure response to acute stress.

Blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. Cort significantly enhanced stress-induced c-Fos expression in vasopressin-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and blockade of peripheral vasopressin V1 receptors attenuated the effect of DHB Cort to enhance the blood pressure response to restraint. These data indicate that glucocorticoids act within the DHB to produce some of the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic stress, in part, by a peripheral vasopressin-dependent mechanism.

Zhang, Wynne Q. Clinical evidence indicates brain serotonin 5-HT stores and neurotransmission may be inadequate in subpopulations of individuals with autism, and this may contribute to characteristically impaired social behaviors. Findings that depletion of the 5-HT precursor tryptophan TRP worsens autism symptoms support this hypothesis. Yet dietetic studies show and parents report that many children with autism consume less TRP than peers.

The effect of acute stress on plasma b- corticosterone B , testosterone T and estradiolb E2 , concentrations in juvenile alligators collected from sites with varying sediment contaminants was examined in this study. Dramatic increases in plasma B concentrations were observe What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome. Female birds deposit corticosterone into their eggs.

Elevated concentrations of this hormone may interfere with the development of their offspring, and mothers should thus regulate corticosterone levels deposited into the eggs adaptively. However, if females are unable to regulate deposition, then the corticosterone concentration in eggs should reflect that in female plasma and should be influenced by stressors to the females. We measured corticosterone levels in the albumen of rockhopper penguins, and assessed their relationship with hatching order, human disturbance and laying date.

Rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome lay two eggs, of which the second egg B-egg is larger and hatches faster than the first egg A-egg. The chick hatching from the B-egg is also much more likely to survive than its sibling. Albumen corticosterone concentrations were lower in B-eggs. However, as B-eggs contained more albumen than A-eggs, the total corticosterone deposited in the albumen was not significantly different between the two eggs.

Daily disturbance by human observers during albumen production did not influence albumen corticosterone levels. Laying date had an effect on total albumen corticosterone through a higher albumen mass. However, we observed a high individual component in the composition of eggs from the same clutch. Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone.

Effect of co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone on the active behaviors and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test. Several clinical reports have postulated a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression.

The present study aimed to examine the effect of treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine, given separately or jointly with risperidone, on active behavior and plasma corticosterone level in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test FST. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats.

Co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone did not reduce the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in animals subjected to the FST. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine and mirtazapine in the FST but does not normalize the stress-induced increase in corticosterone level in these rats , and that 5-HT 1A receptors may play some role in these effects.

Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction. Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors.

Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetic acid DOPAC , homovanillic acid HVA , and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5-HIAA were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus and brainstem. H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction within-session in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test.

They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice.

Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder.

Browne, Caroline A. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites DOPAC , homovanillic acid HVA , and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid 5-HIAA were studied in the amygdala, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, and brainstem. L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 minutes after stress compared to H-FSS mice.

Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. Oviposition and the plasma concentrations of LH, progesterone, and corticosterone in bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus fed parathion.

Bobwhite quail were fed concentrations of parathion 0,50, , or p. Food intake, body weight change, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, egg production, and ovary weight were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In a second experiment, birds were fed 0, 25 or p. Egg production was not affected in birds fed 25 p. Cessation of egg production, inhibition of follicular development, and reduced plasma LH concentration were observed in birds fed p. These findings indicate that exposure to parathion can impair reproduction, possibly by altering gonadotrophin secretion.

Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone , and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning.

Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old. Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina.

Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition corticosterone , plasma metabolites in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort.

We evaluated whether corticosterone CORT and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush Hylocichla mustelina. We also tested whether 1 baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and 2 whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt.

Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable fledglings per season but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output.

Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. Published by Elsevier Inc. Corticosterone predicts foraging behavior and parental care in macaroni penguins.

Corticosterone has received considerable attention as the principal hormonal mediator of allostasis or physiological stress in wild animals. More recently, it has also been implicated in the regulation of parental care in breeding birds, particularly with respect to individual variation in foraging behavior and provisioning effort.

There is also evidence that prolactin can work either inversely or additively with corticosterone to achieve this. Here we test the hypothesis that endogenous corticosterone plays a key physiological role in the control of foraging behavior and parental care, using a combination of exogenous corticosterone treatment, time-depth telemetry, and physiological sampling of female macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus during the brood-guard period of chick rearing, while simultaneously monitoring patterns of prolactin secretion.

Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in females given exogenous implants relative to those receiving sham implants. Increased corticosterone levels were associated with significantly higher levels of foraging and diving activity and greater mass gain in implanted females. Elevated plasma corticosterone was also associated with an apparent fitness benefit in the form of increased chick mass. Plasma prolactin levels did not correlate with corticosterone levels at any time, nor was prolactin correlated with any measure of foraging behavior or parental care.

Our results provide support for the corticosterone -adaptation hypothesis, which predicts that higher corticosterone levels support increased foraging activity and parental effort. Corticosterone response to gestational stress and postpartum memory function in mice. Maternal stress is a common adversity during pregnancy. Gestational corticosterone alternations are thought to contribute to the etiology of postpartum behavioral disturbances. However, the impact of stress during pregnancy, in particular noise exposure, on gestational corticosterone fluctuations and spatial cognition in postpartum mice has not been fully understood yet.

We hypothesized that noise exposure during pregnancy negatively affects gestational corticosterone levels and postpartum memory function in the dams similar to the physical stressors. The noise stress NS was induced by presenting a loud intermittent Hz frequency on gestational days GDs 12, 14, and 16 for 24 hours, whereas the physical stress PS consisted of restraint and exposure to an elevated platform on GDs 12— Plasma corticosterone level was collected on GDs 11 and 17, and Morris water task MWT was carried out 30 days after parturition.

Compared to the control group, the level of corticosterone in the stressed groups was significantly increased on GD17 relative to GD Significantly longer swim time and lower swim speed were observed in both stressed groups relative to the control group.

Probe time was significantly shorter in the NS group than the other groups. The delta corticosterone level was significantly correlated with the swim time as well as the probe time in the three groups. The relationship between adjunctive drinking, blood ethanol concentration and plasma corticosterone across fixed-time intervals of food delivery in two inbred mouse strains.

Schedules of intermittent food delivery induce excessive fluid intake, termed schedule-induced polydipsia SIP , and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis activation is important for the expression and maintenance of this adjunctive behavior. Previous work has focused on examining the relationship between water intake and plasma corticosterone CORT in rats at a single or a limited range of fixed time FT intervals.

However, little remains known regarding SIP and the corresponding stress response 1 across the bitonic function that epitomizes adjunctive behavior, 2 when ethanol is the available fluid, and 3 when a species other than rat or multiple strains are studied. Following 2 weeks of experience with each schedule, blood samples were collected at the conclusion of the last min session to evaluate CORT and the blood ethanol concentration BEC achieved.

While both strains exhibited a bitonic function of ethanol intake and BEC that peaked at or near a 5-min interval, only D2 mice showed a similar response with water. In contrast, CORT levels rose monotonically with incremental increases in the FT interval regardless of the strain examined or fluid type offered, indicating that glucocorticoid release likely reflects the aversive aspects of increasing intervals between reinforcement rather than engagement in adjunctive behavior.

These findings also caution against the use of a single intensity stressor to evaluate the relationship between stress and ethanol intake, as the magnitude of stress appears to affect ethanol consumption in a non-linear fashion. Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks.

Release of corticosterone in hungry kittiwake chicks facilitates begging and allows them to restore depleted energy reserves by increasing parental food provisioning. However, in order to avoid detrimental effects of chronic elevation of corticosterone , chicks might suppress adrenocortical activity in response to prolonged food shortages. Body mass measurements and baseline plasma samples were taken on a weekly basis after beginning of the treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where in addition to a baseline sample, three plasma samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min.

We found that food-restricted chicks had lower body mass, chronically during weeks elevated baseline and higher acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. The firm is particularly popular with major real estate investment funds.

Gustavo Padilha Advogados Associados has a longstanding reputation for providing top-tier real estate advice. Luciana Campos Palermo is another name of note. The fact that major funds like Brookfield regularly use the firm is testament to its track record advising clients investing in retail, logistics, industrial, residential, office and hospitality properties. Rossana Fernandes Duarte. The teams are relatively large and the professionals are highly qualified, which gives us confidence that ours interests will be protected.

Not only has the team a unique knowledge of the subject, but they really understand the need of the client. They always comply with deadlines even short ones. PMK Advogados is a top-notch firm that is entirely focused on the real estate sector. Its expertise ranges from financing and capital markets advice through to corporate joint ventures and major development projects.

The firm's client base includes some of the largest players in the market, including developers, asset managers, foreign investors and corporate owners. Other key partners include Rafael Gobbi , who has an extremely active transactional practice, and Allan de Crocci Souza , who manages the capital markets and banking side. Fernando Maximiano. Veirano Advogados attracts high praise from clients, which come from all corners of the market, including major investment funds, corporate owners and leaseholders, hotel chains, logistics companies and banks.

The team has an especially strong presence in the hospitality sector and is also noted for its good expertise in real estate development projects generally. Shopping and logistics centre deals have featured high on the agenda, and the team has also been involved in some of the largest real estate disputes to hit the market. All the members have a lot of experience in the real estate business.

We like very much to work with Rodrigo de Castro partner and Bruno Arrone senior. They both have a lot of experience and use it to develop an outstanding job. Bicalho e Mollica Advogados is an active player in the market, with a very strong reputation among clients and peers.

The firm handles the full range of real estate matters, and is also equipped to provide related corporate, environmental, litigation, tax, finance and capital markets advice. Rodrigo Bicalho ; Luciano Mollica. Luciano Mollica serves us very well. The team, which is jointly led by Cristiana Moreira and Cristiane Mamprin , acts for clients across a range of sectors, including established investment funds, corporates and new entrants into the market, including WeWork.

The team is also noted for its strong structured finance offering. Cristiana Moreira ; Cristiane Mamprin. His arrival brings added depth to the firm's offering, particularly when it comes to advising on major commercial real estate developments and land acquisitions. Lucas Tavares Bueno ; Marc Stalder. Huck, Otranto, Camargo Advogados is well regarded in the market for its advice to developers, investors, family offices and leaseholders. The team, which is led by the highly respected Estela Maria Lemos Monteiro Soares de Camargo , is also noted for its good experience in rural real estate transactions and development projects, including the establishment of commercial and industrial facilities.

The practice also has a good track record advising on lease agreements, both for landlords and corporate tenants in the retail and commercial office space. Other key partners within the team include Thomaz Henrique Monteiro Whately and Thalita Duarte Henriques Pinto , who is especially active in rural real estate.

All of them are engaged in academic activities but with a focus on their practical application and the solution of everyday problems. They are very business-oriented. The firm represents an impressive mix of investors, developers and corporates on acquisitions, sale and leasebacks, development projects, regularisations, and related financings and capital markets offerings. This includes expertise across the manufacturing, transport, logistics, timberland, retail and agribusiness sectors.

Pedro Cortez remains one of the leading lawyers in the market, and is backed by a talented team of partners that includes Mariana Cortez , Ricardo Stuber , Tomaz Matheus and Rodrigo Pontes. Senior associate Carla Fernandes is also highly regarded. Their deep academic knowledge and practical experience allow businesses to be developed in an adequate commercial way. The versatile team at Pinheiro Neto Advogados brings a broad range of expertise to real estate-related corporate, regulatory and litigation matters.

Joint ventures, capital markets issues and financings form a substantial part of the team's workload, though the firm is also regularly involved in real estate investments and development projects. This includes advice on rural and urban properties, including retail, logistics, hospitality and timberland. This makes the team a real part of the deal and not only a group in charge of draft documents.

Also, the team is very solid, with associates and partners at the same level, making the workflow very efficient. He combines a very deep academic knowledge, with almost 15 years working in the real estate sector, and a business oriented mind to make the deals happen. Stocche Forbes Advogados has an increasingly strong presence in Brazil's real estate market, and the launch of a team in Belo Horizonte illustrates its investment in this field.

The firm also has good expertise in litigation and corporate-related real estate advice. Major investment funds form a large chunk of the client base. Partner Fernanda Rosa is also recommended. Dedication and organisation demonstrate how the team fits in a unique way and prepared for the demands. The team's expertise includes high-end financings, corporate joint ventures, sale and leaseback transactions and construction projects.

Good attention to the subject and the client. They work well and quickly. ASBZ Advogados is equipped to advise on complex real estate development projects, acquisitions, financings and corporate ventures. The team also has good expertise on the litigation front.

Clients include major developers and investment funds. They will continue to hammer away at issues until they find a solution they can recommend or simply and frankly tell you there is NO solution. In other words, you will always know with transparency if a decision can be taken or not.

You never leave a deal wondering if you could have done it with an other law firm. He is always willing to take on the most difficult of transactions and help the client get the deal done. Shopping centres, commercial office blocks, agribusiness plots, industrial properties and residential developments all feature heavily. Recently, the firm was involved in several construction projects in the hospitality and commercial office space.

Practice head Marcos Lopes Prado has made a good name for himself. Marcos Lopes Prado. Clients range from major investment funds to family offices and corporates. As well as advising on urban acquisition and development projects, the practice has a good track record in rural real estate and forestry, where it represents foreign and domestic investors.

Fabricio Barreto de Mattos. It is always pleasant and easy to work with them. It is amazing how much knowledge he has. He can navigate in all areas of the law as well as on the different type of transactions. They seek solutions to problems instead of bringing only problems. Lefosse Advogados has an experienced transactional practice that has been involved in several major acquisitions in the retail, agribusiness, education, residential and hospitality sectors.

The firm represents a mix of investment funds and corporate buyers, and is noted for its strong expertise in real estate buyouts with a corporate structure. Practice head Andrea Caliento is a well-respected figure in the market, among both clients and peers.

The Lefosse professionals are resilient, technically very well prepared and with impeccable professional posture. Machado Meyer Sendacz e Opice Advogados has a multifaceted team with a strong grounding in complex real estate issues. The firm represents a mix of banks, including Banco Breadesco, and investors. Advice ranges from corporate-structured acquisitions and restructurings to regularisations and development projects in the retail, residential, industrial and agricultural sectors.

Bruno Costa joined the team in Navarro Advogados is well respected in the market for its advice to foreign and domestic clients. The firm handles all types of real estate transactions and projects, including residential, industrial, commercial and hotel developments.

Alexandre Tadeu Navarro. Tarso Romani retains a strong reputation, and the boutique remains popular with real estate developers and funds; it regularly advises on acquisitions and related corporate ventures. Tarso Romani. Silveiro Advogados is establishing an increasingly strong presence in the market.

Its expertise covers a range of sectors, including manufacturing, telecoms and education. Rodrigo Mutti. Souto Correa Advogados has a strong focus on high-end commercial, industrial and rural leases, representing a range of domestic and international clients on related issues. The firm has a good developer client base and regularly advises on acquisitions, construction contracts, registrations and litigation matters. TozziniFreire Advogados offers a strong blend of traditional real estate advice and innovative finance and capital markets-related support.

Clients range from investment funds and developers through to corporate investors and leaseholders. Real estate transactions and leasehold agreements feature high on the agenda, as do construction projects and financings across the full mix of sectors and asset types.

Vladimir Miranda Abreu leads the team. Vladimir Miranda Abreu. VBD Advogados is highly recommended by its clients, which include major investment funds, developers and corporate owners. The team provides contentious and non-contentious advice, covering everything from regulatory and tax support through to acquisitions, sale and leasebacks and construction contracts. Olivar Vitale. They understand the challenges we have in our business and dig into the problems to solve them with innovative solutions.

Andrade, Foz, Hypolito e Medicis Advogados has a versatile practice; it represents a mix of corporate owners and tenants, investors and real estate developers, with advice covering development projects, leasing arrangements and sales and acquisitions. The firm serves a broad client base, including investment funds and corporate investors. The practice also has good expertise in real estate-related financings and securitisations.

Cascione Pulino Boulos Advogados has one of the market's most active practices for real estate-related capital markets and finance work. The firm represents several major banks and investment funds on a range of matters, including the public offering of REITs and Real Estate Receivables Certificates.

Felsberg Advogados has a solid real estate practice, with particularly good experience in real estate financings and structured products. The firm represents several investment funds, both on launches and restricted placement offers. Tatiana Guerra leads the team.

Tatiana Guerra. The team at FreitasLeite Advogados is largely focused on capital markets and real estate finance, where it represents several major investment funds. Cristiano da Cruz Leite ; Fernanda Amaral. On top of its expertise in the retail sector, the team regularly advises on investments into residential, office, hospitality and mixed-use properties.

Madrona Advogados comes highly recommended by clients, particularly for its advice to developers and investment funds. Foreign clients also receive strong support in key areas like tax. When I need assistance with minor issues and follow-up of the case, I can contact any member of the team and I will receive prompt and informed answers.

KENTUCKY DERBY PAYOUTS WIN PLACE SHOW BETTING

The team, which is jointly led by Cristiana Moreira and Cristiane Mamprin , acts for clients across a range of sectors, including established investment funds, corporates and new entrants into the market, including WeWork. The team is also noted for its strong structured finance offering.

Cristiana Moreira ; Cristiane Mamprin. His arrival brings added depth to the firm's offering, particularly when it comes to advising on major commercial real estate developments and land acquisitions. Lucas Tavares Bueno ; Marc Stalder.

Huck, Otranto, Camargo Advogados is well regarded in the market for its advice to developers, investors, family offices and leaseholders. The team, which is led by the highly respected Estela Maria Lemos Monteiro Soares de Camargo , is also noted for its good experience in rural real estate transactions and development projects, including the establishment of commercial and industrial facilities.

The practice also has a good track record advising on lease agreements, both for landlords and corporate tenants in the retail and commercial office space. Other key partners within the team include Thomaz Henrique Monteiro Whately and Thalita Duarte Henriques Pinto , who is especially active in rural real estate. All of them are engaged in academic activities but with a focus on their practical application and the solution of everyday problems.

They are very business-oriented. The firm represents an impressive mix of investors, developers and corporates on acquisitions, sale and leasebacks, development projects, regularisations, and related financings and capital markets offerings. This includes expertise across the manufacturing, transport, logistics, timberland, retail and agribusiness sectors.

Pedro Cortez remains one of the leading lawyers in the market, and is backed by a talented team of partners that includes Mariana Cortez , Ricardo Stuber , Tomaz Matheus and Rodrigo Pontes. Senior associate Carla Fernandes is also highly regarded. Their deep academic knowledge and practical experience allow businesses to be developed in an adequate commercial way.

The versatile team at Pinheiro Neto Advogados brings a broad range of expertise to real estate-related corporate, regulatory and litigation matters. Joint ventures, capital markets issues and financings form a substantial part of the team's workload, though the firm is also regularly involved in real estate investments and development projects.

This includes advice on rural and urban properties, including retail, logistics, hospitality and timberland. This makes the team a real part of the deal and not only a group in charge of draft documents. Also, the team is very solid, with associates and partners at the same level, making the workflow very efficient. He combines a very deep academic knowledge, with almost 15 years working in the real estate sector, and a business oriented mind to make the deals happen.

Stocche Forbes Advogados has an increasingly strong presence in Brazil's real estate market, and the launch of a team in Belo Horizonte illustrates its investment in this field. The firm also has good expertise in litigation and corporate-related real estate advice.

Major investment funds form a large chunk of the client base. Partner Fernanda Rosa is also recommended. Dedication and organisation demonstrate how the team fits in a unique way and prepared for the demands. The team's expertise includes high-end financings, corporate joint ventures, sale and leaseback transactions and construction projects. Good attention to the subject and the client. They work well and quickly. ASBZ Advogados is equipped to advise on complex real estate development projects, acquisitions, financings and corporate ventures.

The team also has good expertise on the litigation front. Clients include major developers and investment funds. They will continue to hammer away at issues until they find a solution they can recommend or simply and frankly tell you there is NO solution.

In other words, you will always know with transparency if a decision can be taken or not. You never leave a deal wondering if you could have done it with an other law firm. He is always willing to take on the most difficult of transactions and help the client get the deal done. Shopping centres, commercial office blocks, agribusiness plots, industrial properties and residential developments all feature heavily.

Recently, the firm was involved in several construction projects in the hospitality and commercial office space. Practice head Marcos Lopes Prado has made a good name for himself. Marcos Lopes Prado. Clients range from major investment funds to family offices and corporates. As well as advising on urban acquisition and development projects, the practice has a good track record in rural real estate and forestry, where it represents foreign and domestic investors.

Fabricio Barreto de Mattos. It is always pleasant and easy to work with them. It is amazing how much knowledge he has. He can navigate in all areas of the law as well as on the different type of transactions. They seek solutions to problems instead of bringing only problems. Lefosse Advogados has an experienced transactional practice that has been involved in several major acquisitions in the retail, agribusiness, education, residential and hospitality sectors.

The firm represents a mix of investment funds and corporate buyers, and is noted for its strong expertise in real estate buyouts with a corporate structure. Practice head Andrea Caliento is a well-respected figure in the market, among both clients and peers.

The Lefosse professionals are resilient, technically very well prepared and with impeccable professional posture. Machado Meyer Sendacz e Opice Advogados has a multifaceted team with a strong grounding in complex real estate issues. The firm represents a mix of banks, including Banco Breadesco, and investors.

Advice ranges from corporate-structured acquisitions and restructurings to regularisations and development projects in the retail, residential, industrial and agricultural sectors. Bruno Costa joined the team in Navarro Advogados is well respected in the market for its advice to foreign and domestic clients.

The firm handles all types of real estate transactions and projects, including residential, industrial, commercial and hotel developments. Alexandre Tadeu Navarro. Tarso Romani retains a strong reputation, and the boutique remains popular with real estate developers and funds; it regularly advises on acquisitions and related corporate ventures.

Tarso Romani. Silveiro Advogados is establishing an increasingly strong presence in the market. Its expertise covers a range of sectors, including manufacturing, telecoms and education. Rodrigo Mutti. Souto Correa Advogados has a strong focus on high-end commercial, industrial and rural leases, representing a range of domestic and international clients on related issues. The firm has a good developer client base and regularly advises on acquisitions, construction contracts, registrations and litigation matters.

TozziniFreire Advogados offers a strong blend of traditional real estate advice and innovative finance and capital markets-related support. Clients range from investment funds and developers through to corporate investors and leaseholders. Real estate transactions and leasehold agreements feature high on the agenda, as do construction projects and financings across the full mix of sectors and asset types. Vladimir Miranda Abreu leads the team. Vladimir Miranda Abreu. VBD Advogados is highly recommended by its clients, which include major investment funds, developers and corporate owners.

The team provides contentious and non-contentious advice, covering everything from regulatory and tax support through to acquisitions, sale and leasebacks and construction contracts. Olivar Vitale. They understand the challenges we have in our business and dig into the problems to solve them with innovative solutions.

Andrade, Foz, Hypolito e Medicis Advogados has a versatile practice; it represents a mix of corporate owners and tenants, investors and real estate developers, with advice covering development projects, leasing arrangements and sales and acquisitions. The firm serves a broad client base, including investment funds and corporate investors. The practice also has good expertise in real estate-related financings and securitisations.

Cascione Pulino Boulos Advogados has one of the market's most active practices for real estate-related capital markets and finance work. The firm represents several major banks and investment funds on a range of matters, including the public offering of REITs and Real Estate Receivables Certificates.

Felsberg Advogados has a solid real estate practice, with particularly good experience in real estate financings and structured products. The firm represents several investment funds, both on launches and restricted placement offers. Tatiana Guerra leads the team. Tatiana Guerra. The team at FreitasLeite Advogados is largely focused on capital markets and real estate finance, where it represents several major investment funds.

Cristiano da Cruz Leite ; Fernanda Amaral. On top of its expertise in the retail sector, the team regularly advises on investments into residential, office, hospitality and mixed-use properties. Madrona Advogados comes highly recommended by clients, particularly for its advice to developers and investment funds.

Foreign clients also receive strong support in key areas like tax. When I need assistance with minor issues and follow-up of the case, I can contact any member of the team and I will receive prompt and informed answers. Whenever I need assistance, he is available. Whenever I need an opinion, he knows the subject in depth and gives me an answer right away.

Whenever I have doubts, we assures me with other cases he worked in the past and that were successful. I am glad I can count on him. Mannrich e Vasconcelos Advogados is a solid choice for real estate acquisitions and development projects. The firm regularly advises foreign and domestic investors on investments in rural and urban sites, including properties in the residential, retail, office and hospitality sectors.

The firm has good expertise advising underwriters on share offerings and also has a good track record on the issuance of Real Estate Receivables Certificates. The practice has also advised on the real estate aspects of several major energy projects. The team advises domestic and international blue chips from across a range of industries, including mining, steel, energy, retail, automobile and food and drink. This includes support on regularisations, due diligence exercises and acquisitions.

Siqueira Castro — Advogados is a strong choice for advice on real estate litigation and related regulatory issues, including in environmental law. Clients come from a range of industries and the team regularly advises on urban and rural property matters. Trench Rossi Watanabe offers strong support across a variety of real estate matters; it provides a cradle-to-grave service on construction projects, incorporating contractual and financing negotiations, environmental and planning issues, as well as related insolvencies and litigations.

The team, which is led by Luis Rodrigo Almeida , represents a mix of developers, construction companies, investment funds and family offices. Luis Rodrigo Almeida. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies.

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